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What is it that makes up an atom? Essential Question 10.8.2007 Biochemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "What is it that makes up an atom? Essential Question 10.8.2007 Biochemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is it that makes up an atom? Essential Question 10.8.2007 Biochemistry

2 Matter Properties –physical property description of shape, mass, volume melting point, boiling point –chemical property structure of molecules which make up substance how substance reacts with another Biochemistry

3 Matter Elements –element a substance that can not be broken down into a simpler substance –25 elements are essential to life CHNOPS – 6 greatest Biochemistry

4 Matter atom –smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element Biochemistry

5 Atoms atom structure –nucleus center, contains neutrons & protons –neutrons mass (1.009u) carries no charge, neutral = n 0 –protons (1.007u) carries a positive charge = p + Biochemistry

6 Atoms atom structure –electron (5.486 x 10 -4 u) electrons carry a negative charge = e - Biochemistry

7 Atoms atom structure –electron electrons orbit nucleus in separate energy levels or clouds Biochemistry

8 Atoms Biochemistry

9 Atoms periodic table –atomic number number of protons –atomic mass total mass of protons, neutrons, & electrons –atomic symbol 1or 2 letter symbol for element Biochemistry symbol

10 How are covalent and ionic bonds different? What is an example of each? Essential Question 10.9.2007 Biochemistry

11 chemical bonds chemical bond –two or more atoms chemically bonded together ex: oxygen gas, water, glucose molecular formula –uses atomic symbols to represent atoms bound together in a compound ex: O 2, H 2 O, C 6 H 12 O 6 Biochemistry

12 chemical bonds covalent bond –atoms share electrons ex: water, sugars, proteins ionic bond –attractive force between ions of opposite charge Biochemistry

13 chemical bonds covalent bond ionic bond Biochemistry

14 What ions are released by an acid in water? By a base? Essential Question 10.10.2007 Biochemistry

15 Mixtures and solutions mixture –combination of substances in which individuals retain individual properties ex: mixed sugar and sand, oil and water solution –mixture of one or more solutes are evenly distributed in a solvent ex: salt in water Biochemistry

16 Mixtures and solutions solution –solute substance which dissolvesex: sugar –solvent holds dissolved substanceex: water –the greater the solute = greater the concentration Biochemistry

17 Acids and bases pH –measure of how acidic or basic a solution is acid –forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water –pH below 7 base –forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water –pH above 7 Biochemistry

18 Acids and bases Biochemistry

19 Water polar molecule –molecule with uneven distribution of charge –water is polar, O atom pulls e-s from H atoms Biochemistry

20 Water hydrogen bond –weak attraction between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in different molecules Biochemistry

21 Water properties of water –water resists temperature change –water expands when it freezes –cohesion water molecules attracted to each other –adhesion water molecules attracted to sides of container Biochemistry

22 Water properties of water –water resists temperature change Biochemistry

23 Water properties of water –water expands when it freezes Biochemistry

24 Water –cohesion Water molecules attracted to each other Biochemistry

25 Water –adhesion Water molecules attracted to sides of container Biochemistry

26 More compounds –isomer compounds with same number elements but different structure Biochemistry

27 More compounds –monomer Small molecule that can be bound to other monomers to form polymers –polymer larger molecule formed from smaller subunits Biochemistry

28 More compounds –monomer Small molecule that can be bound to other monomers to form polymers –polymer larger molecule formed from smaller subunits Biochemistry

29 More compounds –polymer larger molecule formed from smaller subunits Biochemistry

30 More compounds –polymer Biochemistry

31 Macromolecules –carbohydrates used by cells to store and release energy 1:2:1C:H:O ex: glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Biochemistry

32 Macromolecules –carbohydrates monomer polymer Biochemistry monosaccharideglucose, fructose disaccharidesucrose polysaccharidecellulose, glycogen

33 Macromolecules –carbohydrates monomer polymer Biochemistry monosaccharideglucose, fructose disaccharidesucrose polysaccharidecellulose, glycogen

34 Macromolecules –carbohydrates monosaccharides Biochemistry

35 Macromolecules –carbohydrates disaccharides Biochemistry

36 Macromolecules –carbohydrates polysaccharides Biochemistry verbascose

37 What are the components of a lipid and of a protein? Essential Question 10.17.2007 Biochemistry

38 Macromolecules –lipids used for energy storage, insulation, protection ex fats, waxes and oils nonpolar, does not dissolve in water contains CHO Biochemistry

39 Macromolecules –lipids glycerol head 3 fatty acid tails Biochemistry

40 Macromolecules –lipids glycerol head 3 fatty acid tails Biochemistry

41 Macromolecules –lipids large proportion of C–H bonds –saturated fats »C atoms in tail all have single (C–C) bonds –unsaturated fats »C at least 1 double bond (C=C) in tail Biochemistry

42 Macromolecules –lipids Biochemistry

43 Macromolecules –Proteins used for growth, maintenance, and repair used as structure for tissues and organs contain CHON Biochemistry

44 Macromolecules –proteins polymer of amino acids –formed using peptide bonds (covalent bond) Biochemistry

45 Macromolecules –proteins amino acids (monomer) Biochemistry

46 Macromolecules –proteins peptide bonds –bond between amino acids Biochemistry

47 Macromolecules –proteins Biochemistry

48 Macromolecules –proteins Biochemistry

49 Macromolecules –proteins enzyme –increase rate of metabolic reactions –induced fit (lock and key) mechanism Biochemistry

50 Macromolecules –proteins enzyme –induced fit (lock and key) Biochemistry

51 Macromolecules –nucleic acids stores cellular information polymer of nucleotides contains CHONP Biochemistry

52 Macromolecules –nucleic acids DNA –genetic information for whole cell RNA –copies DNA to form protein Biochemistry

53 Macromolecules –nucleic acids polymer of nucleotides Biochemistry

54 Macromolecules –nucleic acids Biochemistry

55 Reactions –chemical equations 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Biochemistry

56 Reactions –chemical equations 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O products reactantants Biochemistry

57 Reactions –chemical equations 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O # of atoms on each side of reaction must be balanced coefficients must be balanced __ C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O Biochemistry

58 Reactions –chemical equations dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) –two subunits make polymer –water is released 2C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O Biochemistry

59 Reactions –chemical equations dehydration synthesis Biochemistry

60 Reactions –chemical equations hydrolysis –H 2 O splits bond –two subunits created –C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O 2C 6 H 12 O 6 Biochemistry

61 Reactions –chemical equations hydrolysis Biochemistry

62 Reactions –enzymes lowers activation energy acts as catalysts, speeds up rate of reaction induced fit model (lock and key) Biochemistry

63 Reactions –enzymes substrate –changed after released by enzyme enzyme –active site »where substrate binds to enzyme »can be used over and over Biochemistry

64 Reactions –enzymes Biochemistry

65 Reactions –enzymes Biochemistry


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