Presentation on theme: "Chemistry & life Biology, January 2011 Donald Winslow"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemistry & life Biology, 21-25 January 2011 Donald Winslow Readings: Sylvia S. Mader 2011 Inquiry into Life, 13th ed., McGraw-Hill, NY.Ch. 1 pp 1-9; Ch. 2 pp 20-35, 37-41
2 Objectives for basic chemistry Define “atom” & “element” & give examples.Define “subatomic particle” & give examples.Describe different types of chemical bonds.Describe & give examples of acids & bases.Describe & give examples of important buffers.
3 Objective for biochemistry Define organic molecules & explain the importance of carbon.Describe the structure & function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.Give examples of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.Describe dehydration synthesis & hydrolysis.
4 Matter & energy Matter Energy Composed of particles, has mass The ability to do work, involves forces that affect position & movement of particles.Kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, light, electromagnetic radiation.
5 Subatomic particlesAtomic nucleus composed of protons & neutrons; electrons orbit nucleus.ProtonsPositive (+) charge, ~1 atomic mass unitElectronsElectric (-) charge, ~0 atomic mass unitsPotential energy of electron increases with increasing distance from nucleus.NeutronsNo charge, ~1 atomic mass unit
6 Elements & atoms Atomic symbols Atomic numbers C, H, N, O, P, S, etc.Atomic numbersNumber of protons in nucleusPeriodic table of the elementsIsotopes12C & 14C, radiation
7 Atoms can be combined to form molecules Atoms can be combined to form molecules. Chemical reactions result in exchange of atoms between molecules, synthesis of large molecules from small molecules, or division of large molecules into small molecules.
8 Elements & compounds An element contains only one kind of atom. Examples: Au, O2A compound contains multiple kinds of atoms.Examples: H2O, CO2
9 Chemical bonds Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Polar covalent bonds Relation to saltsCovalent bondsPolar covalent bondsHydrogen bonds
10 Properties of water High heat capacity, high heat of vaporization SolventCohesion & adhesionIce is less dense than waterHydrogen ion concentration is measured by pH
11 Acids, bases, & buffersAn acidic solution has a high H+ concentration & therefore a low pH.vinegar, citric acid, ascorbic acid, HCl, H2SO4A basic (alkaline) solution has a low H+ concentration & therefore a high pH.sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), antacid, NaOHA buffer solution contains a compound that maintains the pH within a narrow range by binding excess H+ and OH- ions.Examples: carbonic acid (H2CO3), NaHCO3
13 Lipids Variable structure Lots of H & C; not much O or NNot water solubleFunctions in energy storage, membranes, chemical messengers, etc.Fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, cholesterol, waxes, oils
14 CarbohydratesPolysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides (monomeric sugars).Function in energy storage & transfer, structural features such as plant cell wallsExamples: glucose, fructose, sucrose (table sugar), lactose, starch, glycogen
15 ProteinsProteins are polypeptides, often modified to form complex shapes.A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids, connected by peptide bonds.Function as enzymes (catalyzing chemical reactions), structural proteins, hormones, antibodies, etc.Examples: amylase, keratin, insulin
16 Nucleic acids Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Function in heredity; direct cellular metabolism, development, etc.Examples: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA)
17 Molecular shape is important to biological function
18 Hydrolysis & dehydration synthesis Splits polymer into smaller molecules, using a water molecule.Dehydration synthesisBuilds polymer from two smaller molecules, releasing water.
19 Properties of living things Growth, development, reproductionNeed energy & materials for metabolismComposed of cellsOrganizedCommunication of informationAdaptationGenes direct development, etc.
20 Biological hierarchy Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism PopulationCommunityNine-banded armadillo
21 Ecological hierarchy Organism Population Community Ecosystem Landscape BiomeBiosphereAgricultural corridor within forested landscape in southern Indiana.
22 Taxonomic hierarchy Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species