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Chemistry of Biology. What is Matter? Anything that has mass and volume.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Biology. What is Matter? Anything that has mass and volume."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry of Biology

2 What is Matter? Anything that has mass and volume.

3 An Atom! What is the smallest unit of matter?

4 An element is “pure stuff”. It is only one kind of atom in matter such as pure gold (Au) from the periodic table. Other Examples: Carbon – all organic molecules have this Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous


6 Electrons (-) Protons (+) and Neutrons (0) What 2 larger particles are in the nucleus of the atom and make up the MASS of the atom? What are their charges? What are the smallest particles in the space outside of the nucleus and do not add to its mass? What is its charge?

7 Represents the # of Protons (+) Represents the # Protons + # Neutrons Also indicates # of electrons (-)

8 Sodium loses an electron Becomes (+) Chloride gains an electron Becomes (-) Na + CL → Na⁺CL⁻

9 “I”onic Bond: When electrons are lost or gained (NO SHARING) between atoms. NaCl Hint: “I” am greedy! “I” give or take but do not share!

10 Covalent bond: When two atoms are sharing an electron pair in a compound. Hint: Co-captains share their position

11 ISOTOPES are different numbers of NEUTRONS in same type of atom! Isotopes of Carbon

12 Molecule Compound Same Definition: 2 or more elements chemically combined

13 Chemical and Physical



16 What does a pH scale indicate? (do not say the pH number). It is the concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. Know which numbers are acidic and basic Strong AcidWeak Acid pH= 1,2,3pH=4,5,6 Weak BaseStrong Base pH= 8,9,10pH=11, 12, 13, 14 Neutral pH = 7

17 A weak acid or weak base that can react with strong acids or bases to make small pH changes and maintain pH balance HOMEOSTASIS Buffer

18 Solvent : What does the dissolving Ex: WATER (Best Solvent) Solute: What is dissolved by the solvent Ex: SALT Solution: When a solute is dissolved into a solvent Ex: Salt + Water

19 What is the name for a type of mixture that there is NO DISSOLVING taking place?

20 Suspension Examples: Sand + Water Oil + Vinegar What is the name for a type of mixture that there is NO DISSOLVING taking place?

21 Same molecules sticking together Water + Water COHESION

22 2 different molecules that stick together Ex: Water and glass ADHESION

23 What is the weak bond called that forms between the polar molecules of water? HYRDOGEN BONDS

24 H (+) O (-) H (+) Polarity: Unequal sharing of electrons (H₂O) EXAMPLE: WATER IS POLAR causing (+) on one side and (-) on the other



27 Polymerization process of joining monomers to make polymers

28 What is this process called that removes water (H2O) when combining monomers to make polymers? DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

29 Carbohydrates – Quick Energy & Structure Lipids – Long-term Energy Storage, membranes, chemical messengers Proteins – movement, pigments, skin, hair, enzymes, immune system, carrying oxygen Nucleic Acids – Heredity, DNA, RNA, ATP They all contain CARBON (organic molecules) What are the 4 types of macromolecules?

30 Monosaccharides (sugars)linked together make Polysaccharides

31 Carbon HydrogenOxygen What 3 elements make up all carbohydrates?

32 What type of carbohydrates do animals and plants store? Glycogen (Sugar) Starch (Sugar)

33 What is cellulose? What is chitin? Carbohydrate of plant cell walls known to us as fiber. MOST ABUNDANT MACROMOLECULE!!! Carbohydrate of insect exoskeletons

34 A Glycerol + Fatty Acid Chain(s) is a lipid. Waxes, Oils, Fats Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids What is the building block (monomer) of lipids?


36 What are the 4 elements that are found in proteins?

37 Which macromolecule creates pigments for our skin, hair, eyes, hemoglobin (carry oxygen), antibodies to fight infection, and muscles (movement) for our bodies? PROTEINS

38 Nitrogen Base 5 Carbon Sugar Phosphate group NUCLEOTIDE Nucleic Acids What is the monomer of nucleic acids and name the 3 parts?

39 Nucleic Acids: What are 3 types of nucleic acids? DNA (genetic information) RNA ATP What are 5 the elements? C, H, O, N, P

40 What are Enzymes? Proteins that speed up chemical reactions in our bodies.

41 Enzymes are catalysts in the body that help speed up chemical reactions. Must know the 3 parts Reactant that needs the help of an enzyme is called a substrate Lock & Key

42 What 2 things affect enzymes ability to do their job? Temperature & pH

43 What part is the area of catalytic activity?

44 Chemical Reactions What are the reactants and products of this reaction? A + B → C Reactants Products

45 Activation Energy (energy needed to get a reaction started) Energy Released Energy Absorbed

46 Energy released during a chemical reaction is in the form of……… Heat, Light, and or Sound

47 A B An enzyme was added to reaction B to lower the activation energy needed for the reaction to take place.

48 Review Your Chemistry Test Answers

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