An element is “pure stuff”. It is only one kind of atom in matter such as pure gold (Au) from the periodic table. Other Examples: Carbon – all organic molecules have this Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous
Electrons (-) Protons (+) and Neutrons (0) What 2 larger particles are in the nucleus of the atom and make up the MASS of the atom? What are their charges? What are the smallest particles in the space outside of the nucleus and do not add to its mass? What is its charge?
Represents the # of Protons (+) Represents the # Protons + # Neutrons Also indicates # of electrons (-)
Sodium loses an electron Becomes (+) Chloride gains an electron Becomes (-) Na + CL → Na⁺CL⁻
“I”onic Bond: When electrons are lost or gained (NO SHARING) between atoms. NaCl Hint: “I” am greedy! “I” give or take but do not share!
Covalent bond: When two atoms are sharing an electron pair in a compound. Hint: Co-captains share their position
ISOTOPES are different numbers of NEUTRONS in same type of atom! Isotopes of Carbon
Molecule Compound Same Definition: 2 or more elements chemically combined
What does a pH scale indicate? (do not say the pH number). It is the concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. Know which numbers are acidic and basic Strong AcidWeak Acid pH= 1,2,3pH=4,5,6 Weak BaseStrong Base pH= 8,9,10pH=11, 12, 13, 14 Neutral pH = 7
A weak acid or weak base that can react with strong acids or bases to make small pH changes and maintain pH balance HOMEOSTASIS Buffer
Solvent : What does the dissolving Ex: WATER (Best Solvent) Solute: What is dissolved by the solvent Ex: SALT Solution: When a solute is dissolved into a solvent Ex: Salt + Water
What is the name for a type of mixture that there is NO DISSOLVING taking place?
Suspension Examples: Sand + Water Oil + Vinegar What is the name for a type of mixture that there is NO DISSOLVING taking place?
Same molecules sticking together Water + Water COHESION
2 different molecules that stick together Ex: Water and glass ADHESION
What is the weak bond called that forms between the polar molecules of water? HYRDOGEN BONDS
H (+) O (-) H (+) Polarity: Unequal sharing of electrons (H₂O) EXAMPLE: WATER IS POLAR causing (+) on one side and (-) on the other
Polymerization process of joining monomers to make polymers
What is this process called that removes water (H2O) when combining monomers to make polymers? DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
Carbohydrates – Quick Energy & Structure Lipids – Long-term Energy Storage, membranes, chemical messengers Proteins – movement, pigments, skin, hair, enzymes, immune system, carrying oxygen Nucleic Acids – Heredity, DNA, RNA, ATP They all contain CARBON (organic molecules) What are the 4 types of macromolecules?
Monosaccharides (sugars)linked together make Polysaccharides
Carbon HydrogenOxygen What 3 elements make up all carbohydrates?
What type of carbohydrates do animals and plants store? Glycogen (Sugar) Starch (Sugar)
What is cellulose? What is chitin? Carbohydrate of plant cell walls known to us as fiber. MOST ABUNDANT MACROMOLECULE!!! Carbohydrate of insect exoskeletons
A Glycerol + Fatty Acid Chain(s) is a lipid. Waxes, Oils, Fats Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids What is the building block (monomer) of lipids?