4Exposition-gives the background of the storyintroduces the charactersintroduces the settingintroduces the conflict
5Rising Action-complications arisebuilds suspenseevents leading to the climax
6Climax-the turning point of the storysuspense reaches its peak
7Falling Actionevents that occur after the climax leading up to the resolutionusually ties up loose ends
8Resolution-the ending or conclusion to a storythe conflict is resolved
9Types of Characters Protagonist main character round or dimensional dynamic- or changes throughout the storyAntagonistforce working against protagoniststatic- does not change
10Characterization:The process by which the writer/author reveals the personality of the character.
11Direct Characterization Direct TELLS the audience what the personality of the character isFor example: The quiet boy, the patient girl
12Indirect Characterization Indirect SHOWS things that reveal the personality of a character.Speech (what do they say and how do they speak?)Thoughts (private thoughts and feelings)Effect on others toward the character (effect on others; behavior and reaction to the character)Actions (what is their behavior?)Looks (what is their appearance like: looks, clothes, etc.)STEAL
13Setting Tells time and place Puts the reader in the story by giving the reader the feeling of being in the situation.Creates atmosphere by the positive or negative feelings associated with the place.
14PlotThe chain or series of related events that take place in a story. that include rising action, climax, and falling actionBuilt around conflict
15Conflict A struggle between opposing forces. External Man v Man Man v NatureMan v Obstacle or SocietyMan v SupernaturalInternalMan v Self
16Point-of-View (Who’s telling this story anyway?) the vantage point from which the story is told.determines how much we, the readers, know about the characters.
171st Person Narrator is a character in the story. Narrator uses first-person pronouns, I, me, my, we, us, our to refer to himself or herself.Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character and speaks directly to reader.
183rd Person Limited Narrator does not participate in action of story. Narrator does not refer to himself or herself.Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character, but readers are able to maintain some emotional distance from the character.
193rd Person OmniscientNarrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all characters; readers get insight into several characters.
20ThemeIn literature, theme is a perception about life or human nature that the writer wants to share with the reader.In most cases, the theme is not stated directly but must be inferred.Themes can be revealed bya story’s titlekey phrases and statements about big ideasthe ways the characters change and the lessons they learn about life.
21Building SuspenseMoves the story along and helps the reader to move forwardOne way is through cause and effectcreates new movement, or turns in the story, and adds new possibilitiesOften the reader can foresee (foreshadowing) events that will happen later in the story based on key phrases or events that occur earlier in the story
22ImageryUses vivid description to help create a picture in the reader’s headRemember, imagery describes, other devices compare such as:Simile- a direct comparison between two things using like or as (My love is like a red, red, rose)Metaphor- a direct comparison between two things- no like or as (Her heart was a drum, beating out a fast tune)Personification- giving human characteristics to non-human objects (the wind whispered softly in my ears)
23Mood v Tone Watch out! Tone and mood are similar!! Mood is the general atmosphere created by the author’s words. It is the feeling the reader gets from reading those words. It may be the same, or it may change from situation to situation. Mood is the overall feeling a reader gets from a story.Tone is the author’s attitude toward the writing (his characters, the situation) and the readers. A work of writing can have more than one tone. An example of tone could be both serious and humorous. Tone is set by the setting, choice of vocabulary and other details.