Presentation on theme: "The Modern Diet. As we face epidemic numbers of people with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, many people have started to question the role."— Presentation transcript:
As we face epidemic numbers of people with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, many people have started to question the role our modern diet plays on our health. There is no doubt that, when you compare what we eat today to what our parents or grandparents ate, the changes are huge.
Today we eat highly processed food, and not enough fruits and vegetables; our dietary fiber intake is a major concern. It has been found recently that the amount of fiber in our diets has decreased so rapidly.
Metabolic and physiological changes in the diet will take much longer time to happen. So constipation, and perhaps heart disease and some cancers, may become major problems because our bodies cant change as fast as our diets.
Paleolithic Diet Paleolithic diet consists mainly of: lean meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots, and nuts; and excludes: grains, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.
Paleolithic Diet Compared to Modern Diet Paleolithic Diet Minerals2 X more Fiber4 – 10 X more Antioxidants10 X more Omega – 3 fatty acids50 X more Lactic acid bacteria> 1010 more Protein2 X less Saturated fatty acids4 X less Sodium10 X less
Fast Food Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. Any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food (food sold in a restaurant or store with low quality preparation and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-away.
Cuisine Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial fashion, e.g., on a large scale with standard ingredients and standardized cooking and production methods. It is usually quickly served in cartons or bags or in a plastic wrapping, in a fashion which minimizes cost.
In most fast food operations, menu items are generally made from processed ingredients prepared at a central supply facility and then shipped to individual outlets where they are reheated, cooked (usually by microwave or deep frying) or assembled in a short amount of time.
This process guarantees a consistent level of product quality, and is key to being able to deliver the order quickly to the customer and eliminate labor and equipment costs in the individual stores.
Because of commercial importance on speed, uniformity and low cost, fast food products are often made with ingredients formulated to achieve a certain flavor and to preserve freshness.
Globalization In 2006, the global fast food market grew by 4.8% and reached a value of 102.4 billion $ and a volume of 80.3 billion transactions. In India alone the fast food industry is growing by 40% a year.
McDonalds is located in 120 countries and operates 30,000 restaurants around the world. On 31/1/1990 McDonalds opened a restaurant in Moscow, and broke opening day records for customers served. The Moscow restaurant is the busiest in the world. The largest McDonalds in the world is located in Beijing, Republic of China.
There are many other fast food restaurants located all over the world. Burger King has more than 11,100 restaurants in more than 65 countries. KFC is located in 25 countries.
Subway has 29,186 restaurants located in 86 countries, the first international location opened in December 1984 in Bahrain. Pizza Hut is located in 26 countries, with 100 locations in China. Taco Bell has 278 restaurants located in 12 countries besides the United States.
Health issue Trans fats which are commonly found in fast food have been shown in many tests to have a negative health effect on the body.
A 2006 study fed monkeys a diet containing of a similar level of trans fats as what a person who ate fast food regularly would consume. Both diets contained the same overall number of calories.
Findings It was found that the monkeys who consumed higher level of trans fat developed more abdominal fat than those fed a diet rich in unsaturated fats. They also developed signs of insulin resistance, which is an early indicator of diabetes.
Cont….. After six years on the diet, the trans fat fed monkeys had gained 7.2% of their body weight, compared to just 1.8% in the unsaturated fat group.
Obesity facts The director of the Obesity Program for the Childrens Hospital Boston, David Ludwig, says that "fast food consumption has been shown to increase calorie intake, promote weight gain, and elevate risk for diabetes". The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranked obesity as the number one health risk for Americans in 2004.
It is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United Sates and results in 400,000 deaths each year. About 60 million American adults are classified as being obese with another 127 million being overweight.
Too much calories are another issue with fast food. A regular filling meal at McDonald's of a Big Mac, large fries, and a large Coca-Cola drink amounts to 1430 calories.
Supersizing 280 kcal Old DaysHamburger Double Whopper with Cheese 1120 kcal
Increased Calories Classic Coke 8 fluid oz 100 kcal 1950 Extreme Gulp 52 fluid oz 2002 630 kcal
WHO global strategy for diet, physical activity, and health Goal: –To guide in the development of actions at local, national, and international levels that will lead to measurable improvements in risk factor levels with reduced disease and death rates due to chronic diseases related to diet and physical activities
Recommendations Increase intake of fruits and vegetables as well as whole grains and nuts. Increase levels of physical activity across life span Increase intake of fish and lean meats Reduce salt consumption Reduce heavy marketing of foods high in fat and sugar