Presentation on theme: "Fat 101 Carbohydrate Protein Fat is a necessary part of the diet"— Presentation transcript:
1Fat 101 Carbohydrate Protein Fat is a necessary part of the diet Fat is one of the most concentrated source of energy in our dietsOther Energy Sources…CarbohydrateProteinWhat is fat? Fat is one of the four components in our diets that supplies energy (or calories). Besides fat, can anyone name the other components of our diets that provide energy? Answer: Carbohydrate, Protein, and Alcohol.
2Which contains more calories? A teaspoon of sugar, or…16 caloriesA teaspoon of butter36 caloriesWhich do you think contains more calories, a teaspoon of sugar (carbohydrate) or a teaspoon of butter? The teaspoon of butter. It has 36 calories while the teaspoon of sugar has about 16 calories. In other words, fat contains more than twice the calories that are found in carbohydrate or protein. Protein is equal to sugar in the number of calories and alcohol is more than protein and sugar, but slightly less than fat.Fats are almost double the calories and too many can cause weight gain.
3The Benefits of Fat in Our Diets Some fat in our diet helps us absorb certain vitamins – Fat Soluble VitaminsFats are a source of energyFat supplies heat and organ protectionHelp us feel satisfied and cause us to feel full longerSome types provide essential fatty acidsAdds Flavor and texture to foodHelps with brain development and function in developing babies and infantsDAEKWe often think of fat as bad, but there are many benefits of fats in our diets. Can anyone name some of these benefits?We need some fat to help us absorb certain vitamins, called fat-soluble vitamins like Vitamin A, D, E, and K and to help us feel satisfied with our food (gives flavor and has “mouth-feel”). It also makes us feel full longer. If you cut our fat too much, you will feel hungry more often. Recently, there has been news about the benefit of some types of fat in providing essential fatty acids and vitamin E. Also, we know that a type of fat helps with brain development and function in developing babies and infants. Researchers are learning more about other benefits of fat.
4Potential Negative Effects of Fat Eating too much of some types of fats can increase our risk for:heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.Some fats increase LDL “bad” cholesterol.Too much fat may lead to weight gain –obesity.Fat can have negative effects on our health. For instance, eating too much of some types of fats can increase our risk for heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Some fats increase LDL “bad” cholesterol, which can lead to plaque build-up in our arteries. And too much fat may lead to weight gain –obesity because fat is high in calories.
5Visible Fats Fat that you can see Butter Oils Fat and marbling in meats
6Fats inside foods that are not obvious or visible to the eye. Invisible FatsFats inside foods that are not obvious or visible to the eye.AvocadosOlivesMilkPastries
7Types of Fat Solid Fat Saturated (fatty acids) Hydrogenated –Trans fat (fatty acids)Liquid Fat (Oil)Unsaturated (fatty acids)ShorteningAs we just discussed, some types of fat provide health benefits while others can be harmful if we eat too much of them. We will discuss the differences between types of fat in relation to health in just a few minutes. But before then, let’s talk about the different types of fat. There are three main types of fatSolid FatSaturated (fatty acids)Hydrogenated –Trans fat (fatty acids)Liquid Fat (Oil)Unsaturated (fatty acids)Cholesterol (“cousin” of fat -sterol)A part of the Lipid family
8SOLID FAT Solid at room temperature Saturated Fatty Acids Full of CholesterolLimit your consumption!Sources:Animal productsAnimal fat: lard, butter, high-fat meats, poultry skinShortening, margarineException: Palm and coconut oilNow, we’ll take a closer look at the differences between solid fat and liquid oils.Saturated fat is a solid fat, which means that it is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in butter, animal fats, such as lard, high-fat meats, and poultry skin, high-fat dairy products, and in tropical oils, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Although tropical oils are not solid at room temperature, they still contain a high percentage of saturated fat, therefore they are placed in the saturated fat category.
9Hydrogenated FatHydrogenation is the process where Hydrogen (H) atoms are added to a liquid fat to make it a solid fat (such as margarine).Trans Fats are formed in the hydrogenation process.H+Hydrogenated fat is another type of solid fat. This fat is formed through a process called hydrogenation. During this process Hydrogen atoms are added to a liquid fat (oil) to make it a solid fat, such as margarine. This process helps foods stay fresh on the shelf longer.This process helps foods stay fresh on the shelf longer.
10Cholesterol :Fat like substance found in every cell of the body Part of skin tissueTransports essential fatty acidsNeeded to produce hormonesThe body makes all it needsIt is present in anything that can walk, swim or fly!2 types: HDL = Good (H is healthy)LDL = Bad (L is Loser)
11Problems with Cholesterol… a diet high in cholesterol and saturated fats can increase the blood cholesterol level in many people and cause a risk of heart disease.Atherosclerosis: plaque build up in the arteries risking a stroke or heart attack.
12Liquid at room temperature Heart Healthy & Cholesterol free 2 types: LIQUID FAT = OILSLiquid at room temperatureHeart Healthy & Cholesterol free2 types:MonounsaturatedPolyunsaturatedSources:PlantsFishNutsLiquid fat, or oil, is made up of unsaturated fat. Liquid oils is liquid at room temperature and includes 2 types, monounsaturated oils and polyunsaturated oils.
13Different kinds of oils….. Common Cooking Oils:canola oilcorn oilcottonseed oilolive oilsafflower oilsoybean oilsunflower oilSesame oilOther Sources of Oils:nutsolivessome fishavocadosmayonnaise, salad dressings, soft tub margarine (no trans fats)
14Fatty Acids: Chemical building blocks for fats and oils 1. Saturated2. Polyunsaturated3. Monounsaturated
15Saturated Fatty Acids… Saturated fats tend to be waxes or greasy solids.Acceptable but use sparinglyRaises good cholesterol (HDL ↑) and raises bad cholesterol (LDL ↑)Sources:Main sources of saturated fat are from animal products: red meat and whole-milk dairy products, including cheese, sour cream, ice cream and buttercoconut oil, cocoa butter
16Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids… Acceptable but use sparinglyLowers good cholesterol (HDL↓) and lowers bad cholesterol (LDL↓)Sources:Oils: corn, cottonseed, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oilSoft (tub) margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressingsWalnuts, sunflower seedsFishPolyunsaturated fatty acids, often called PUFA’s for short, are slightly different than monounsaturated fatty acids in their structure. The “poly” in polyunsaturated fat means that there are more than one double bond in the structure. Sources of polyunsaturated oils include vegetable oils: corn, cottonseed, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oil; soft (tub) margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings, walnuts, sunflower seeds, and fish.
17Monounsaturated Fatty Acids… Best for your bodyRaises good cholesterol (HDL↑) and lowers bad cholesterol (LDL↓)Sources:Canola, olive, and peanut oilsAvocadoAlmonds, cashews, pecans, and peanutsSesame seedsMonounsaturated oils are different from polyunsaturated oils primarily due to their structural make-up. The “mono” in the name means that there is only one double bond in its structure. Monounsaturated oils are found in canola, olive, and peanut oils, avocado, almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts, and sesame seeds.
18Excess fat will be stored as adipose tissue (body fat) How Much Fat Do We Need?Men = 30–60 gramsWomen = 20–40 gramsExcess fat will be stored as adipose tissue (body fat)Here are the recommended amounts of fats and oils according to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines. The recommendation for total fat is 20 to 35% of calories. It recommends that most fats come from poly- and monounsaturated fat (fish, nuts, vegetable oils). The upper limit has recently increased from 30% to 35%. If someone is getting closer to the upper range, they should place extra emphasis on unsaturated fat and the amount of cholesterol that they are eating. If a person consumes less than 20%, they may have low intakes of vitamin E, essential fatty acids; Decreased HDL (good) cholesterol, increased triglycerides; Increased risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. High intakes of fat (more than 35 percent of calories) are associated with: increased calorie and saturated fat intakes, and thus increased risk for obesity, coronary heart disease and certain cancers such as breast and colorectal cancer; increased LDL (bad) cholesterol; increased risk for diabetes.The recommendation for saturated fat is less than 10% of calories per day; cholesterol is less than 300 mg/dL per day. Trans fat recommendations are new to the Dietary Guidelines. There has not been a value assigned to the amount of trans fat to keep within limits. Instead the recommendation is to keep as low as possible. There has not been any benefit seen from including trans fat in the diet.
19How Much Oil?6 teaspoons (or 2 Tablespoons) per day for 2,000 calorie level.Serving Size:1 tsp soft margarine (trans fat free) or vegetable oil1 Tbsp low-fat mayo2 Tbsp light salad dressing2 tsp of oil:1 Tbsp regular salad dressing3 tsp of oil (1 Tbsp) :1 oz of nuts OR ½ avocadoSuggest: Use measuring spoons to help the group visualize the recommended amounts of oil.The amount of oil recommended varies depending on your calorie needs. But, in general for a 2,000 calorie diet we need 6 teaspoons, or 2 Tablespoons per day. Here is a listing of what 1 teaspoon is equivalent to:1 tsp soft margarine (trans fat free) or vegetable oil1 Tbsp low-fat mayo2 Tbsp light salad dressing2 teaspoons is equal to 1 Tablespoon of regular salad dressing. Oils also come from nuts, seeds, avocados and fish and count towards your recommended amount. For instance, 3 teaspoons of oil (1 Tablespoon) equals 1 oz of nuts or ½ avocado.Note to Agent: Point out chart on handout (Oils and Solid Fat) of how to count the foods that you eat towards your oil allowance. Activity: Have a few people volunteer to suggest examples of how a woman, or man, can use his/her oil allowance from foods. For example, a woman with a recommended 6 teaspoons of oil per day can have a salad with 2 Tablespoons of Italian dressing for dinner, use 1 Tablespoon of olive oil to sautéed vegetables for dinner, and use about 1 teaspoon of mayonnaise in her tuna salad for lunch.Point out the fact that it is difficult to count the number of teaspoons that you use each day. Oils are found in many foods. The key message is to include oils in cooking or use margarine as a spread in place of butter or other sources of saturated fat, but to watch the amounts. Oil is high in calories.
20Can you Find the fat in your food? Read the label!!!!! Do the math and Make lower fat food choices!!!! Fat grams X 9 ÷ Total calories X 100 = % of calories from fat Sonic Corn Dog Calories:330 Fat: 20 grams % calories from fat: 54%
21Choosing a Spread Butter or Margarine? Product1 TablespoonTotal FatSaturated FatTrans fatCombined Saturated and Trans FatsCholesterol (mg)Butter11 g7.2 g (35% DV)0.3 g7.5 g31mgStick Margarine2.1 g (10% DV)2.8 g4.9 gSoft tub margarine –Trans fat Free6.7 g1.2 g(5% DV)0.1 mgMargarine in the bottle0.4 g0.1 g (0% DV)0.1 g0.2 mgWhen choosing a spread, which is the better choice, butter or margarine? This is a common debate among consumers. We often hear conflicting messages about which is the best choice. What are some reasons that you have heard for choosing one over the other? Well, independent of taste, or personal preference, if you evaluate the two based on the total saturate and trans fat, these are the results. Agent: be sure to point out that butter has more saturated fat than stick margarine, while stick margarine has more trans fat than butter. But, when saturated fat and trans fat are combined, butter is the highest. The best choice in most cases, other than in baking, is to choose a spread that is soft or liquid at room temperature and is trans fat free.
22The Bottom Line on Fats & Oils We need some oils for good health.Choose a vegetable oil or soft margarine in place of butter or animal fats.Limit fat intake to recommendationsEat fried foods and commercial baked goods in moderation.Choose leaner meats and low-fat dairyCheck Nutrition labels to stay within your limits!!!Today we have covered a lot of information about fats and oils, but there is a bottom line on fats and oils to remember.ALL fats and oils are NOT at the top of the food pyramid anymore!We need some oils for good health, but other fats we need to limit.Although fats and oils are not created equal…– they are ALL high in calories!!!CALORIES: 1 TABLESPOON OF OIL = 135 CALORIES1 TABLESPOON OF BUTTER OR MARGARINE= 100 CALORIES