Presentation on theme: "Western invasions ( ) Opium War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 Western invasions (1839-1900) Opium War (1839 - 1842) The Second Opium War ( )Russia’s territorial gainsNortheast China ( )Northwest China ( )Sino-French War ( )Sino-Japanese War ( )8-nation forces (1900)
2 Weakness fully exposed Sino-Japanese War ofChinese navy destroyedTaiwan ceded to Japanlarge indemnitymost-favored-nationmore treaty portsKoreastart of Japanese empire
4 The Boxer Uprising in 1900 Peasants in Northern China support from high officials of Qing courtdestruction of anything foreignsiege of the legation quarter in Beijing
5 8-nation forces invaded Beijing Harsh settlementstation troops in Beijinghuge indemnityRussian troops in Manchuriauntil 1905
6 Radicalization of politics status quomodern monarchyQing courtReformersPeasantsRevolutionariesrepublicpre-1841 ChinaMarxism?nationalism?
7 Revolution of 1911Dr. Sun Yat-senGen. Yuan Shikai
8 The Revolution of 1911 1911-10-10, Wuchang Uprising Qing dynasty was overthrown, China became a republic
9 Sun YatSen (1866 - 1925) 1st President of the Republic of China founder of the Nationalist Party (GMD)The Three Principles of the Peoplenationalismpeople’s rightspeople’s livelihood
10 Yuan Shi Kai returned to politics and replaced Sun Yat Sen who had no power base. Sun became minister of transport hoping to modernise China.Yuan was a general and an autocrat however and wanted to become emperor of China. He caved in to Japanese pressure and was opposed by other generals. He died in 1916 but set a precedent for generals to try to seize power. China was to enter one of its darkest periods, the War Lord Period.
12 Era of the Warlords (1916-1926) Local concentrations of power emerge military leaders & local gentry take control of the provinces.Warlord armies terrorize the countryside.Millions of peasants die of famine & disease.Peasants’ desire for land went unresolved; landless grew
13 The Warlords Li Yuanbong Zhang Zuolin Yan Xishan Feng Yuxiang They fought for control of Beijing, to be recognised as the official government of China . The effects were disastrous, particularly on the peasants who were raped and pillaged and forced to pay taxes up to 30 years in advance, for their “protection and safety”.
14 Frustrated nationalism China’s previous efforts to borrow from the West to achieve wealth and power all failedmilitary hardware and related technologieseconomic institutions and organizationscience, scholarship, and educationgovernment, political processes and organizations
15 Frustrated nationalism China became weaker and poorercontinuous civil wars between warlordsWestern privileges in Chinahumiliated and abused in the world
16 Radical urban intellectuals multiplication of ism’s
17 World War I (1914-18) Beijing government joined the Allied forces sent laborers to Europe
18 World War I (1914-18) Japan drove German forces out of Qingdao Paris Peace Conference in 1919
22 May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 students protest in Peking.slogan: ‘Down with the Imperialists’becomes a nationalist movement:1. Spreads to other cities2. Nationalism & anti-imperialist sentiment grow.
23 Spread of the movement Boycott Japanese products demand release of arrested studentsworkers and merchants joined inShanghai, Nanjing, etc.Paris, California, etc.
24 May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 Outcome:Create broad based coalition.Force release of imprisoned studentsdismissal of Japanese officials from govt.reformers turn against SunYat-sen’s belief in westerndemocracy.
25 Following the Russian revolution the GMD turned to Russia for help. The Comintern sent Mikhail Borodin (left) to organise the new Chinese Communist Party and to assist the GMD to unite and overthrow the warlords.
26 New political parties Nationalist Party (GMD) was established Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leaderCommunist Party was established in 1921Mao ZeDong was one of its founding members
27 Unfotunately Sun died in 1925 before his plans could come to fruition Unfotunately Sun died in 1925 before his plans could come to fruition. His funeral train is seen with his picture on the front.
28 Chiang KaiShek Born in Zhejiang Province in 1887 studied Confucianism in his hometownstudied military in Japanreturned during the Revolution of 1911became a follower of Sun YatSenPresident of the Huangpu Academy
29 Sun Yat-sen’s son in law and leader of the new army Chiang Kai Shek quickly took command and established himself as leader moving against the War Lords in the successful Great Northern Expedition.
30 GMD soldiers in Guangzhou eat before departing for the North.
31 Northern Expedition GMD & CCP merged in 1924 split in 1927 CCP was decimated
32 Break-up of KMT and CCP Chiang Kai-shek 1925 Chiang Kai-shek emerges as KMT leaderKMT & CCP forces successfully defeat the Warlords.1927—Chiang fears CCP and its leaders.KMT troops overrun ShanghaiExecute CCP leaders & union members.“Purges” spread to other cities.Surviving CCP leaders go into hiding.Chiang Kai-shek
33 The success of the Northern Expedition surprised everyone as many of the Warlords were defeated or made peace with the GMD.The march to Shanghai became a triumphal parade but left Chiang with a problem. He did not want to share power with his Communist allies, preferring the capitalist way of development which would ensure close ties with the USA.He decided therefore to end the United Front which had been so successful in defeating the Warlords and to eliminate his communist allies. A bloody purge of the communists followed in Shanghai and in Guangzhou.The massacre was successful and left Chiang free to march on Beijing and establish himself as China’s first strong ruler since He would be in a position to carry out Sun Yat Sen’s programme of modernisation of a united country.
40 Nationalism under Chiang Negotiated with Western powers and Japanregained the sovereign right to set tariffsabolished extraterritorial rightsabolished or revised “unequal treaties” with Western powers of the Qing dynastyrecovered some of the “leased areas” from Western powers
41 China soon came to know him as the ruler of the country China soon came to know him as the ruler of the country. He liked to be called the Genralissimo. He was able to modernise China as the electric cables for street cars shown in this picture demonstrate. Generally cities, particularly Shanghai, made great progress, even in the harsh economic climate of the 1930’s Great Depression.
42 Nationalist Republic of China (1928-37) Chiang Kai-shek becomes President.U.S. & Britain recognizes KMT governmentGovernment becomes dictatorial and corrupt.Focuses on modernizing & developing cities.Ignores the peasants—life does not improve
52 China under Chiang Kai-Shek Japanese encroachment1928, Shandong Province1931, Manchuria3 provinces1932, Shanghai1933, Northern Chinasuburbs of Beijing1937, full-scale aggression startedBeijing and Shanghai
53 The Japanese posed an even bigger threat,taking Manchuria and putting Pu Yi on the throne as a puppet. After 1937 they invaded and conquered the rich coastal plains and cities of China in a brilliantly successful but brutal campaign, culminating in the massacre at Nanjing where 300,000 civilians were slaughtered in an orgy of rape, pillage and execution.Victorious Japanese troops at ShanghaiIt then became Chiang Kai Shek’s turn to flee to the interior of China and resist as best he could in Chung king until the Americans arrived with help.