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China 1911-1949 Warlords Nationalists & Communists Japanese Invasion Civil War and Communism 8.

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Presentation on theme: "China 1911-1949 Warlords Nationalists & Communists Japanese Invasion Civil War and Communism 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 China Warlords Nationalists & Communists Japanese Invasion Civil War and Communism 8

2 Qing Collapse: 1911 Qing Dynasty ends officially in 1911 Young emperor survives No single leader or government Yuan Shikai as President and commander – in name only Warlord factionalism 1920s Communists and Nationalists emerge to contest leadership Both claim Sun Yat-sen as the father of their movement. Sun survives until 1925 but never really rules china

3 China 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s Contending Forces Nationalists v Communists Nationalists v Communists Communists and the COMINTERN Communists and the COMINTERN –Urban Communists and Soviet advisors –Rural communists and Mao Zedong Nationalists Nationalists –Led by Chiang Kai-Shek, (Jiang Jishi) –Supported by non-communist West –Local power base in traditional Gentry and new capitalist class 1930s COMINTERN

4 Nationalists v Communists Communists Urban communism in China Urban communism in China –COMINTERN: Soviet orthodoxy –Communism must be urban and based on industrial labor Peasant Communists in China Peasant Communists in China –Mao Zedong –Chinese Communism must be based in agricultural labor – must have Chinese characteristics Both claimed to draw from Sun Yat-sen, Marx and Lenin Both claimed to draw from Sun Yat-sen, Marx and Lenin

5 Nationalists v Communists Nationalists (KMT) Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jishi) Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jishi) Claimed to build on Sun Yat-sen Claimed to build on Sun Yat-sen Unify China under military government Unify China under military government Establish order and defeat threat of communism Establish order and defeat threat of communism Power base in traditional Gentry and new business class Power base in traditional Gentry and new business class Favored and supported by Western nations Favored and supported by Western nations

6 China 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s Contending Forces WW I: Japan enters on US-British side WW I: Japan enters on US-British side –Tries to claim territory and power in China as a victorious nation –Issues 21 Demands (see book for details) WW I ends WW I ends US President Woodrow Wilson US President Woodrow Wilson –Rejects 21 Demands –Defends Chinese Sovereignty –Upholds Chinese Independence

7 China 1920s and 1930s Contending Forces United Front – 1926 (first) –Under pressure from COMINTERN, urban Communists join with Nationalist –Under pressure from Western supporters, Nationalists join with Communists –Jiang Jishi initiates a purge of communists 1927

8 China 1920s and 1930s Contending Forces Pre-WW II 1931: Mukden Incident Japanese military stage train sabotage to justify mobilization Japanese military stage train sabotage to justify mobilization Japanese takeover Manchuria Japanese takeover Manchuria Establish Puppet Government under former Qing Emperor Establish Puppet Government under former Qing Emperor Not officially, but this begins the conflicts of World War II in Asia Not officially, but this begins the conflicts of World War II in Asia

9 1930s 2 nd United Front Under pressure from COMINTERN, urban Communists join with Nationalists again Under pressure from COMINTERN, urban Communists join with Nationalists again Under pressure from Western supporters, Nationalists join with Communists Again Under pressure from Western supporters, Nationalists join with Communists Again Jiang Jishi sees communists as “cancer within” while Japan’s threats are a “disease of the skin” Jiang Jishi sees communists as “cancer within” while Japan’s threats are a “disease of the skin” Jiang launches wholesale attack on communist “allies” 1935 Jiang launches wholesale attack on communist “allies” 1935 Urban Communists decimated Urban Communists decimated Only Mao Zedong and Peasant Communists left Only Mao Zedong and Peasant Communists left

10 The Long March Long March Long March Nationalists attempt Nationalists attempt to finish off Communists Communists flee east then north in the Long March Communists flee east then north in the Long March 2/3 of communists don’t survive 2/3 of communists don’t survive Survivors are seasoned and solidified under Mao Zedong Survivors are seasoned and solidified under Mao Zedong

11 Communists v. Nationalists Long March and Japanese Invasion Communists: United and ideologically motivated United and ideologically motivated Disciplined Disciplined Used persuasion and education to recruit Used persuasion and education to recruit Traded services or purchased supplies Traded services or purchased supplies “Liberated” villages from tyrannical local gentry “Liberated” villages from tyrannical local gentry Treated villagers with respect Treated villagers with respect Promised a better world under their rule Promised a better world under their rule

12 Communists v. Nationalists Long March and Japanese Invasion Nationalists Conscript army – random, violent draft Conscript army – random, violent draft Unmotivated and undisciplined Unmotivated and undisciplined Support based on gentry and urban rich Support based on gentry and urban rich Commandeered supplies, no compensation Commandeered supplies, no compensation Looting, pillaging, even rape common Looting, pillaging, even rape common Implied promise: more of the same Implied promise: more of the same Lose support and loyalty through Long March Lose support and loyalty through Long March

13 World War II: Officially Marco Polo Bridge incident Marco Polo Bridge incident Japanese sweep south and take Beijing Japanese sweep south and take Beijing Nationalists retreat to Nanjing Nationalists retreat to Nanjing Rape of Nanjing: Dec Mar Rape of Nanjing: Dec Mar. 1938

14 World War II Nationalists: Continue to pursue Communists Continue to pursue Communists Ineffective in defending against Japan Ineffective in defending against Japan Terrible public relations within China Terrible public relations within ChinaCommunists: Gather in Yenan Gather in Yenan Harass Japanese in small raids Harass Japanese in small raids Cultivate image as REAL defenders of China Cultivate image as REAL defenders of China Rebuild and demonstrate success in Yenan Rebuild and demonstrate success in Yenan

15 World War II Ends: 1945 China “Victorious” as part of Allied Forces Liberated by America’s defeat of Japan Allied powers recognize and support Nationalists – fear and repress Communists Jiang and Nationalists remain tyrannical and continue to try and purge Communists

16 Civil War: Full Scale Civil War Erupts Communists v. Nationalists Soviets back Communists US and Western Europe back Nationalists Nationalists better equipped and funded Communists win battle for hearts and minds Communists emerge victorious: October 1949


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