2 Unequal Treaties1. Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese2. Open several ports to British trade3. Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong4. Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China
3 Western invasions (1839-1900) Opium War (1839 - 1842) The Second Opium War( )Russia’s territorial gainsNortheast China ( )Northwest China ( )Sino-French War ( )Sino-Japanese War ( )8-nation forces (1900)
4 Weakness fully exposed Sino-Japanese War ofChinese navy destroyedTaiwan ceded to Japanlarge indemnitymost-favored-nationmore treaty portsKoreastart of Japanese empire
5 By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. 5Internal ProblemsBy the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley.The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants.An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden.Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.Followed by the Boxer Rebellion against foreigners.**In both rebellions the Qing dynasty had to rely on European troops to regain power
6 Radicalization of politics status quomodern monarchyQing courtReformersPeasantsRevolutionariesrepublicpre-1841 ChinaMarxism?Capitalist-Democratic?
7 Overthrow of Manchu Dynasty (1644-1911) Sun Yat-sen becomes the leaderof the revolutionsets up a republicis elected presidentHopes to establish govt. basedon the three principles of the people.1. Nationalism2. Democracy3. People’s LivelihoodSun Yat-sen ( )
8 World War I--Asia Japan: 1917-China and Japan aide Allies vs. Germany - Chinese used as laborers not soldiers- Japan sends navy to help Brits blockadeGerman ports and drives Germans out of China1919 Treaty of Versailles:Japan gains territory & privileges previously belonging to Germany in China. (Shandong Province)
9 Chinese Response: May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 students protest in Peking.slogan: ‘Down with the Imperialists’becomes a nationalist movement:1. Spreads to other cities2. Nationalism & anti-imperialist sentiment grow.
10 May Fourth Movement Spreads Boycott Japanese productsworkers and merchants joinProtests in major Chinese citiesGoes international:Paris, CaliforniaForce release of imprisoned studentsdismissal of Japanese officials from govt.Some turn against SunYat-sen’s belief in westerndemocracy.
11 Following the Russian revolution the GMD turned to Russia for help. The Comintern sent Mikhail Borodin (left) to organise the new Chinese Communist Party and to assist the GMD to unite and overthrow the warlords.
12 New political parties Nationalist Party (GMD) - established prior to the Revolution by Sun Yat-Sen, but dies in 1925General Chiang Kai-Shek takes overCommunist Party was established in 1921Mao Ze Dong was one of its founding members-becomes leader by 1935 duringthe Long March12
13 The Chinese Civil War 1926-1949 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek Chairman Mao Zedong
14 Communists in rural areas revolutionary bases in Jiangxi Province for CCP elite and purge survivors AND their Soviet advisorsTo grow their base and spread communist revolts to other areas
16 Nationalist Republic of China (1928-37) Chiang Kai-shek becomes President.U.S. & Britain recognizes KMT governmentGovernment becomes dictatorial and corrupt.Focuses on modernizing & developing cities.Ignores the peasants—life does not improve
17 Mao Tse-tung and the Peasants Recognizes potential.Organizing soviets to train peasantsDivides CCP land amongst peasantsWins their loyalty
18 The Japanese posed an even bigger threat, taking Manchuria After 1937 they invaded and conquered the rich coastal plains and cities of China in a brilliantly successful but brutal campaign, culminating in the massacre at Nanjing where 300,000 civilians were slaughtered in an orgy of rape, pillage and execution. But this only united and motivated the Chinese to fight them.It then became Chiang Kai Shek’s turn to flee to the interior of China and resist as best he could in Chungking until the Americans arrived with help.Mao’s Red Army did most of the fighting against the Japanese.Gaining combat experience to use against Chaing Kaishek when the Japanese are defeated and the Civil War restarts ( )
20 “A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.”
23 China under Mao Communist ideology shaped new government Having defeated the Guomindang, Mao set about building a Communist China. His first concern was rebuilding a country that had been torn apart by years of civil war.Communist ideology shaped new governmentChange in China’s political, economic systemsGovernment discouraged practice of religionRebuilding ChinaAlso seized property of rural landowners, redistributed among peasantsPut in place Soviet-style five-year plans for industrial developmentDevelopmentBy 1957, first plan doubled China’s small industrial outputEarly efforts to build economy successfulImproved economy, reduced povertyFirst Plan
24 Soviet Union provided financial support, aid in China’s first years China Modeled on Soviet UnionSoviet Union provided financial support, aid in China’s first yearsChina modeled many of its new political, economic, military policies on Soviet system1950s, territorial disputes, differences in ideology pushed China away from Soviet allyImprovements in literacy rates, public healthChinese life expectancy increased sharply over next few decadesImprovements came at a costTo consolidate Communist control over China, government soon began to eliminate so-called “enemies of the state” who had spoken out against government’s policiesMany thousands—including public officials, business leaders, artists, writers—killed, or sent to labor camps