Presentation on theme: "Imperial China 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.. China before Qin Dynasty The “Yellow Emperor” Xia and Shang Dynasties –2070 B.C. - 1046 B.C. Zhou Dynasty –1046."— Presentation transcript:
Imperial China 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.
China before Qin Dynasty The “Yellow Emperor” Xia and Shang Dynasties –2070 B.C B.C. Zhou Dynasty –1046 B.C B.C. “Spring and Autumn” period –770 B.C B.C.
Confucius born in 551 B.C. died in 479 B.C.
In China Today
Confucianism Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order a system of social and ethical philosophy li –rituals, norms, institutions, or mores ren –humaneness, kindness, benevolence, or virtue
Five Relationships father-child ruler-subject husband-wife elder brother-younger brother friend-friend
Qin Dynasty 221 B.C B.C. Qin Shi Huangdi unified China built a centralized bureaucratic apparatus –prefectures and counties persecuted Confucianism Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) promoted Confucianism as state ideology
Civil Service Exam System 605 A.D. to 1905 A.D. composition based on Confucian classics
Ming Dynasty ( )
China’s Tributary System Traditional system for managing foreign relations The ``Middle Kingdom” worldview Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system –tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa
Qing Dynasty ( ) Ming dynasty fell in 1644 amid peasant uprisings and Manchu invasion Manchu and Han Chinese
Ming and Qing Emperors
Mandate of Heaven
Western invasions ( ) Opium War ( ) The Second Opium War ( ) Russia’s territorial gains –Northeast China ( ) –Northwest China ( ) Sino-French War ( ) Sino-Japanese War ( ) 8-nation forces (1900)
The Treaty System large amount of indemnity dozens of treaty ports open to foreign –trade –gunboats –missionaries territorial losses tariffs
Weakness fully exposed Sino-Japanese War of –Chinese navy destroyed –Taiwan ceded to Japan –large indemnity –most-favored-nation –more treaty ports –Korea start of Japanese empire
The scramble for concessions
The scramble for answers radicalization of domestic politics the “Hundred Days of Reform” in 1898 –ambitious reform program examination system bureaucracy modernization –suppressed by conservatives in Qing court reformist leaders fled to Japan
The Boxer Uprising in 1900 Peasants in Northern China support from high officials of Qing court destruction of anything foreign siege of the legation quarter in Beijing
8-nation forces invaded Beijing Harsh settlement station troops in Beijing huge indemnity Russian troops in Manchuria –until 1905
Imperialism in China
Radicalization of politics Qing courtReformers PeasantsRevolutionaries status quo pre-1841 China modern monarchy republic Marxism?nationalism?
Legacies of Imperial Era enormous size ideological and moral commitment strong personal leadership at the apex nationwide governing bureaucracies –merit-based civil service exam system –combination of executive and judicial power low status of merchants culturalism (civilization) v. nationalism