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Imperial China 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D..

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Presentation on theme: "Imperial China 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperial China 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.


3 China before Qin Dynasty
The “Yellow Emperor” Xia and Shang Dynasties 2070 B.C B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1046 B.C B.C. “Spring and Autumn” period 770 B.C B.C.


5 Confucius born in 551 B.C. died in 479 B.C.

6 In China Today

7 Confucianism Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order a system of social and ethical philosophy li rituals, norms, institutions, or mores ren humaneness, kindness, benevolence, or virtue

8 Five Relationships father-child ruler-subject husband-wife
elder brother-younger brother friend-friend

9 Qin Dynasty 221 B.C. - 206 B.C. Qin Shi Huangdi unified China
built a centralized bureaucratic apparatus prefectures and counties persecuted Confucianism Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) promoted Confucianism as state ideology

10 Civil Service Exam System
605 A.D. to 1905 A.D. composition based on Confucian classics

11 Ming Dynasty ( )

12 China’s Tributary System
Traditional system for managing foreign relations The ``Middle Kingdom” worldview Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa

13 Qing Dynasty ( ) Ming dynasty fell in 1644 amid peasant uprisings and Manchu invasion Manchu and Han Chinese

14 Ming and Qing Emperors

15 Mandate of Heaven

16 Western invasions (1839-1900) Opium War (1839 - 1842)
The Second Opium War ( ) Russia’s territorial gains Northeast China ( ) Northwest China ( ) Sino-French War ( ) Sino-Japanese War ( ) 8-nation forces (1900)

17 The Treaty System large amount of indemnity
dozens of treaty ports open to foreign trade gunboats missionaries territorial losses tariffs

18 Weakness fully exposed
Sino-Japanese War of Chinese navy destroyed Taiwan ceded to Japan large indemnity most-favored-nation more treaty ports Korea start of Japanese empire

19 The scramble for concessions


21 The scramble for answers
radicalization of domestic politics the “Hundred Days of Reform” in 1898 ambitious reform program examination system bureaucracy modernization suppressed by conservatives in Qing court reformist leaders fled to Japan

22 The Boxer Uprising in 1900 Peasants in Northern China
support from high officials of Qing court destruction of anything foreign siege of the legation quarter in Beijing

23 8-nation forces invaded Beijing
Harsh settlement station troops in Beijing huge indemnity Russian troops in Manchuria until 1905

24 Imperialism in China

25 Radicalization of politics
status quo modern monarchy Qing court Reformers Peasants Revolutionaries republic pre-1841 China Marxism? nationalism?

26 Legacies of Imperial Era
enormous size ideological and moral commitment strong personal leadership at the apex nationwide governing bureaucracies merit-based civil service exam system combination of executive and judicial power low status of merchants culturalism (civilization) v. nationalism

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