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Copy the following on the top 15 lines of NB p. 45. States Rights Debate Compact Theory: Kentucky Resolution : Doctrine of nullification: Threats of secession:

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Presentation on theme: "Copy the following on the top 15 lines of NB p. 45. States Rights Debate Compact Theory: Kentucky Resolution : Doctrine of nullification: Threats of secession:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copy the following on the top 15 lines of NB p. 45. States Rights Debate Compact Theory: Kentucky Resolution : Doctrine of nullification: Threats of secession: Permanent Union: Supremacy Clause: Marbury v. Madison: Fears of anarchy:

2 Copy the following onto the bottom 16 lines of NB p Allow four lines for this row. 1829Allow three lines for the other rows

3 Lesson 12.3: Conflict Over States Rights Today we will analyze the issues in the debate over states rights during the Nullification Crisis.

4 Vocabulary analyze – understand by separating into smaller parts issues – points being argued over debate – formal argument states rights – powers and privileges possessed by the states nullification – cancelling out or making something powerless crisis – turning point or dangerous situation

5 Check for Understanding What are we going to do today? What does it mean to analyze? What are states rights? What is a crisis that an 8 th grader might face?

6 What We Already Know During the battle for ratification of the Constitution, Patrick Henry was one of many Americans who were concerned that too much power was being taken from the states and given to the federal government.

7 What We Already Know In the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison anonymously declared that states do not have to enforce laws that they believe are unconstitutional.

8 What We Already Know Southerners disliked tariffs because they increased the cost of foreign manufactured goods that Southerners frequently imported.

9 The Tariff of Abominations (1828) In 1828, a new high tariff that angered Southerners was being debated in Congress. Since the tariff hurt the South but helped the North, Southerners felt the government was being unfair. Southerners hated the Tariff of 1828 so much they referred to it as the Tariff of Abominations. Some Southerners began to say their states should leave the Union (i.e., secede). In 1828, a new high tariff that angered Southerners was being debated in Congress. Since the tariff hurt the South but helped the North, Southerners felt the government was being unfair. Southerners hated the Tariff of 1828 so much they referred to it as the Tariff of Abominations. Some Southerners began to say their states should leave the Union (i.e., secede).

10 Check for Understanding Why did the tariff make Southerners feel the national government was being unfair? What threat were some Southerners starting to make?

11 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

12 9. Why did Southerners call the Tariff of 1828 the Tariff of Abominations? A.It made European imports too expensive. B.It lowered the prices they could charge for cotton. C.It lowered the tariff to the levels they had been in D.It reduced the amount of cotton foreign countries could purchase from Southerners. A.It made European imports too expensive. B.It lowered the prices they could charge for cotton. C.It lowered the tariff to the levels they had been in D.It reduced the amount of cotton foreign countries could purchase from Southerners.

13 John C. Calhoun wanted to keep South Carolina from seceding. Calhoun had to calm Southerners fears about the tariff and their loss of influence in the government. He also needed to find a way for the South to avoid collecting the Tariff of Abominations.

14 Calhoun developed the doctrine of nullification from different sources. The first was the compact theory of government. Constitution created a compact (or contract) between the states and the federal government. If the federal government breaks that contract, the states have the right to ignore the government. The first was the compact theory of government. Constitution created a compact (or contract) between the states and the federal government. If the federal government breaks that contract, the states have the right to ignore the government.

15 Calhoun developed the doctrine of nullification from different sources. The second was Thomas Jeffersons Kentucky Resolution. The Kentucky Resolution said that states did not have to enforce a law that they felt was unconsti- tutional or outside the governments expressed powers.

16 Check for Understanding According to the compact theory, what was the relationship between the states and the federal government based on? What did the Kentucky Resolution say states could do if Congress passed a law they didnt agree with?

17 The Doctrine of Nullification State legislatures have the authority to determine if a law is constitutional. If the legislature declares a federal law unconstitutional, then that law is nullified (i.e., not legal) within that states borders Calhoun published his doctrine anonymously in a document called South Carolina Exposition and Protest.

18 Threats of Secession Should the need arise, states have the right to secede from the Union and become independent.

19 Check for Understanding According to the doctrine of nullification, who had the authority to determine if a law is constitutional? What was the name of the document in which Calhoun published his doctrine of nullification?

20 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

21 10. How would the doctrine of nullifi- cation provide a way for states to avoid paying the high tariff? A.State legislatures could nullify their own tax obligations to federal government. B.State legislatures could pay the tariffs in inflated state currency, which is called nullification. C.State legislatures could change new federal tariff laws before they could go into effect. D.State legislatures could nullify a tariff law, and not collect the tariff. A.State legislatures could nullify their own tax obligations to federal government. B.State legislatures could pay the tariffs in inflated state currency, which is called nullification. C.State legislatures could change new federal tariff laws before they could go into effect. D.State legislatures could nullify a tariff law, and not collect the tariff.

22 Objections to Nullification the permanency of the Union the supremacy clause of the Constitution the Marbury v. Madison decision the fears of anarchy the permanency of the Union the supremacy clause of the Constitution the Marbury v. Madison decision the fears of anarchy

23 Permanent Union Some Americans were opposed to the ideas of states rights and the compact theory. States voluntarily gave up their sovereignty when they entered the Union. They could not secede from the Union once they became part of the United States.

24 The Supremacy Clause Most Northerners believed that the Kentucky Resolution was in conflict with the supremacy clause of the Constitution. Federal laws are the law of the land, and state laws may not contradict federal law.

25 The Marbury v. Madison Decision To many, the Supreme Courts decision in Marbury v. Madison made nonsense out of the doctrine of nullification. In 1801, the court had ruled that the authority to determine the constitutionality of a law belonged to the Supreme Court alone, not the states.

26 Fears of Anarchy Opponents of the doctrine of nullification were very concerned about threats of secession. States ruling on constitutionality would lead to chaos in the nation. Opponents of the doctrine of nullification were very concerned about threats of secession. States ruling on constitutionality would lead to chaos in the nation.

27 Check for Understanding What does the supremacy clause say about conflicts between federal law and state law? According to Marbury v. Madison, who has the authority to declare a law unconstitutional?

28 1828 Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations. Calhoun published South Carolina Exposition and Protest; explaining the doctrine of nullification. Andrew Jackson was elected president, partly as a protest against the tariff.

29 Check for Understanding What did Southerners call the Tariff of 1828? Why did Southerners object to the Tariff of Abominations?

30 1829 Jackson took office, with Calhoun as his vice-president. Public debate over the tariff and the doctrine of nullification continued. Jackson took office, with Calhoun as his vice-president. Public debate over the tariff and the doctrine of nullification continued.

31 1830 Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne debated the issue of states rights and nullification in Congress. Jackson learned of Calhouns support for nullification. Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne debated the issue of states rights and nullification in Congress. Jackson learned of Calhouns support for nullification.

32 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

33 11. What was the Webster-Hayne debate? A.President Jacksons impeachment. B.the doctrine of nullification. C.internal improvements. D.the Tariff of It was a debate between Senators Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne over...

34 1832 Congress reduced the tariff, but not enough to make Southerners happy. South Carolina nullified both tariffs, threatens to secede, and began building an army. Jackson was re-elected (without Calhoun); threatened to use force against South Carolina to enforce federal laws. Congress reduced the tariff, but not enough to make Southerners happy. South Carolina nullified both tariffs, threatens to secede, and began building an army. Jackson was re-elected (without Calhoun); threatened to use force against South Carolina to enforce federal laws.

35 Check for Understanding Who debated the nullification issue in Congress? How did Congress try to solve the crisis? How did South Carolina respond? What threat does Jackson make?

36 1833 Henry Clay created another compromise tariff, and it was quickly passed by Congress. South Carolina repealed its bill of nullification, and the crisis was averted, ending the threat of civil war.

37 Check for Understanding Who helped the nation avoid war over the Tariff of Abominations? What did Clay do to help? How did South Carolina respond to the new compromise tariff?

38 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

39 12. How was the nullification crisis resolved? A.President Jackson sent federal troops into South Carolina to collect the tariff. B.the Webster-Hayne debate gave everyone a better understanding of the issues. C.South Carolina came up with a new tariff rate that Congress quickly accepted. D.Henry Clay worked out a compromise tariff that South Carolina could accept. A.President Jackson sent federal troops into South Carolina to collect the tariff. B.the Webster-Hayne debate gave everyone a better understanding of the issues. C.South Carolina came up with a new tariff rate that Congress quickly accepted. D.Henry Clay worked out a compromise tariff that South Carolina could accept.

40 States Rights Debate Compact Theory: Kentucky Resolution : Doctrine of nullification: Threats of secession: Permanent Union: Supremacy Clause: Marbury v. Madison: Fears of anarchy: Constitution created a compact States voluntarily gave between states and federal govt. up their sovereignty when If the federal govt breaks it, the they entered the Union. states dont have to obey it. States did not have to enforce a law that they felt was unconstitutional or outside the governments expressed powers. Federal laws are the law of the land, and state laws may not contradict federal law. States have the right to determine a laws constitutionality, and ignore it if it is ruled unconstitutional by the state legislature. The Supreme Court alone has the authority to determine constitutionality. If necessary, states could withdraw from the Union. Nullification by states would lead to national chaos.

41 Congress passed the high tariff over Southerners protests -- Calhoun anonymously publishes South Carolina Exposition and Protest to declare his theory of nullification -- Jackson elected, in part as a protest of the Tariff of Abominations Jackson takes office w/Calhoun as VP, unaware of his authorship -- public debate over the Tariff and over nullification continues Webster-Hayne Debates over secession vs. union -- Jackson becomes aware of Calhouns support for nullification Congress reduces the tariff -- South Carolina nullifies the Tariff, threatens to secede, begins building army -- Jackson re-elected (without Calhoun); threatens to use force Henry Clay creates a compromise tariff, quickly passed by Congress -- South Carolina backed down without admitting wrong


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