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Sectional Issues Cheap Public Land Internal Improvements Higher Tariffs North Favored or opposed and why South Favored or opposed and why West Favored.

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Presentation on theme: "Sectional Issues Cheap Public Land Internal Improvements Higher Tariffs North Favored or opposed and why South Favored or opposed and why West Favored."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sectional Issues Cheap Public Land Internal Improvements Higher Tariffs North Favored or opposed and why South Favored or opposed and why West Favored or opposed and why Copy the following on NB p. 65.

2 Lesson 12.3: Conflict Over States’ Rights Today’s Essential Question: How did a sectional argument over a tariff law almost lead to a civil war in 1832?

3 Vocabulary sectional – referring to one region or area instead of the whole nation tariff – a tax on imported goods states’ rights – powers and privileges possessed by the states nullification – cancelling out or making something powerless crisis – turning point or dangerous situation

4 Check for Understanding What is today’s Essential Question? Why doesn’t the U.S. government charge a tariff on wine grapes grown in Temecula? What is a crisis that an 8 th grader might face?

5 What We Already Know During the battle for ratification of the Constitution, many Americans were concerned that too much power was being taken from the states and given to the federal government.

6 What We Already Know In the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison anonymously declared that states do not have to enforce laws that they believe are unconstitutional.

7 What We Already Know Southerners disliked tariffs because they increased the cost of foreign manufactured goods that Southerners frequently imported.

8 When President Jackson took office in 1829, three economic issues were pulling the nation apart: the sale of public lands, internal improvements, and tariffs.

9 Check for Understanding A ask B: What three issues were pulling the nation apart along sectional lines in the late 1820s? The three issues that were pulling the nation apart along sectional lines in the late 1820s the sale of public lands, internal improvements, and tariffs. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

10 The Sale of Public Lands Northeasterners did not want the lands in the West to be sold at low prices. They were concerned that the cheap land would attract workers who were needed in the Northeastern factories.

11 Westerners wanted low prices for public land. Cheap land would attract more settlers. More people meant more political power for the West.

12 Southerners had no strong opinion about the issue. Because they owned slaves, Southerners did not need to fear the loss of their labor force to the West.

13 Internal Improvements Internal improvements is a term that usually refers to roads, canals, bridges, and other structures that aid transportation. The Northeast and West wanted the government to spend money on transportation to help move agricultural products and manufactured goods.The Northeast and West wanted the government to spend money on transportation to help move agricultural products and manufactured goods.

14 Southerners opposed internal improvements. The new roads and canals would connect the West and the Northeast, and would not help the Southern economy at all.The new roads and canals would connect the West and the Northeast, and would not help the Southern economy at all. Also, Southerners knew the money to pay for the improvements would come from tariffs, and Southerners did not want an increase in tariffs.Also, Southerners knew the money to pay for the improvements would come from tariffs, and Southerners did not want an increase in tariffs.

15 Check for Understanding B ask A: What are internal improvements? Internal improvements are roads, canals, bridges, and other structures that aid transportation. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

16 Check for Understanding A ask B: Which two sections wanted the government to spend more money on internal improvements? The Northeast and the West wanted the government to spend more money on internal improvements. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

17 Check for Understanding B ask A: Why did the Northeast and the West want the government to spend more money on internal improvements? The Northeast and West wanted the government to spend money on internal improvements to make it easier to move agricultural products and manufactured goods from one region to another. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

18 Check for Understanding A ask B: For what two reasons did the South oppose spending government money on internal improvements? The South opposed spending government money on internal improvements because the new roads and canals would not help the Southern economy at all, and would cause a rise in tariff rates. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

19 Northerners supported higher tariffs. Tariffs are taxes on imported goods.Tariffs are taxes on imported goods. The North supported tariffs because they protected U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition, and the revenue would pay for internal improvements.The North supported tariffs because they protected U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition, and the revenue would pay for internal improvements.

20 Southerners opposed tariffs. The Southern economy was based on foreign trade, and higher tariffs made imported goods more expensive for Southerners.The Southern economy was based on foreign trade, and higher tariffs made imported goods more expensive for Southerners. The tariff revenue wouldn’t help the South, which needed no internal improvements.The tariff revenue wouldn’t help the South, which needed no internal improvements.

21 The West also favored raising tariffs. Westerners bought most of their manufactured goods from New England factories, so higher prices for manufactured goods didn’t affect them.Westerners bought most of their manufactured goods from New England factories, so higher prices for manufactured goods didn’t affect them. The tariff revenue would help the West because it would pay for the internal improvements the West needed for transporting factory products.The tariff revenue would help the West because it would pay for the internal improvements the West needed for transporting factory products.

22 Check for Understanding B ask A: What is a tariff? A tariff is a tax on imported goods. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

23 Check for Understanding A ask B: Why did the Northeast and the West support raising tariff rates? The Northeast and the West supported raising tariff rates because the tariffs would raise revenue for internal improvements, and would protect American manufacturers from foreign competition. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

24 Check for Understanding B ask A: Why did the South oppose higher tariffs? The South opposed higher tariffs because its economy was based on foreign trade, and higher tariffs made imported goods more expensive for Southerners, who didn’t need internal improvements. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!

25 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

26 8. How did the issue of tariffs lead to sectional differences? A.The issue of tariffs caused hostility between the North and the South. B.The issue of tariffs caused hostility between the North and the West. C.The North believed tariffs would protect U.S. products from foreign competition and raise money for internal improvements. D.The South opposed higher tariffs because they would make imported goods more expensive for Southerners. E.The West opposed tariffs because they need no internal improvements. Choose all that are true!

27 The ‘Tariff of Abominations’ (1828) In 1828, a new high tariff was being debated in Congress.In 1828, a new high tariff was being debated in Congress. Since the tariff hurt the South but helped the North, angry Southerners felt the government was being unfair.Since the tariff hurt the South but helped the North, angry Southerners felt the government was being unfair. Southerners hated the Tariff of 1828 so much they referred to it as the Tariff of Abominations.Southerners hated the Tariff of 1828 so much they referred to it as the Tariff of Abominations. Some Southerners began to say their states should leave the Union (i.e., secede).Some Southerners began to say their states should leave the Union (i.e., secede).

28 Check for Understanding A ask B: Why did the tariff make Southerners feel the national government was being unfair? The tariff make Southerners feel the national government was being unfair because it would increase the cost of foreign manufactured goods that Southerners frequently imported. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

29 Check for Understanding B ask A: What threat were some Southerners starting to make? Some Southerners began to threaten that their states should leave the Union. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

30 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

31 9. Why did Southerners call the Tariff of 1828 the Tariff of Abominations? A.It made European imports too expensive. B.It lowered the prices they could charge for cotton. C.It lowered the tariff to the levels they had been in D.It reduced the amount of cotton foreign countries could purchase from Southerners. A.It made European imports too expensive. B.It lowered the prices they could charge for cotton. C.It lowered the tariff to the levels they had been in D.It reduced the amount of cotton foreign countries could purchase from Southerners.

32 John C. Calhoun wanted to keep South Carolina from seceding. Calhoun had to calm Southerners’ fears about the tariff and their loss of influence in the government. He also needed to find a way for the South to avoid collecting the Tariff of Abominations.

33 Calhoun developed the doctrine of nullification from different sources. The first was the compact theory of government.The first was the compact theory of government. Constitution created a compact (or contract) between the states and the federal government.Constitution created a compact (or contract) between the states and the federal government. If the federal government breaks that contract, the states have the right to ignore the government.If the federal government breaks that contract, the states have the right to ignore the government.

34 Calhoun developed the doctrine of nullification from different sources. The second was Thomas Jefferson’s Kentucky Resolution. The Kentucky Resolution said that states did not have to enforce a law that they felt was unconsti- tutional or outside the government’s expressed powers.

35 Check for Understanding A ask B: According to the compact theory, what was the relationship between the states and the federal government based on? between the states and the federal government. According to the compact theory, the relationship between the states and the federal government was based on a contract between the states and the federal government. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

36 Check for Understanding B ask A: What did the Kentucky Resolution say states could do if Congress passed a law the states felt was unconstitutional? If Congress passed a law they felt was unconstitutional, the Kentucky Resolution said that states did not have to enforce it. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

37 The Doctrine of Nullification State legislatures have the authority to determine if a law is constitutional. If the legislature declares a federal law unconstitutional, then that law is nullified (i.e., not legal) within that state’s borders Calhoun published his doctrine anonymously in a document called “South Carolina Exposition and Protest.”

38 Threats of Secession Should the need arise, states have the right to secede from the Union and become independent.

39 Check for Understanding A ask B: According to the doctrine of nullification, who had the authority to determine if a law is constitutional? According to the doctrine of nullification, states had the authority to determine if a law is constitutional. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

40 Check for Understanding B ask A: What was the name of the document in which Calhoun published his doctrine of nullification? Calhoun published his doctrine of nullification in the “South Carolina Exposition and Protest.” Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

41 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

42 10. How would the doctrine of nullifi- cation provide a way for states to avoid paying the high tariff? A.State legislatures could nullify their own tax obligations to federal government. B.State legislatures could pay the tariffs in inflated state currency, which is called nullification. C.State legislatures could change new federal tariff laws before they could go into effect. D.State legislatures could nullify a tariff law, and not collect the tariff. A.State legislatures could nullify their own tax obligations to federal government. B.State legislatures could pay the tariffs in inflated state currency, which is called nullification. C.State legislatures could change new federal tariff laws before they could go into effect. D.State legislatures could nullify a tariff law, and not collect the tariff.

43 Objections to Nullification the permanency of the Union the supremacy clause of the Constitution the Marbury v. Madison decision the fears of anarchy

44 Permanent Union Some Americans were opposed to the ideas of states’ rights and the compact theory. States voluntarily gave up their sovereignty when they entered the Union. They could not secede from the Union once they became part of the United States.

45 The Supremacy Clause Most Northerners believed that the Kentucky Resolution was in conflict with the supremacy clause of the Constitution. Federal laws are the law of the land, and state laws may not contradict federal law.

46 The Marbury v. Madison Decision To many, the Supreme Court’s decision in Marbury v. Madison made nonsense out of the doctrine of nullification. In 1801, the court had ruled that the authority to determine the constitutionality of a law belonged to the Supreme Court alone, not the states.

47 Fears of Anarchy Opponents of the doctrine of nullification were very concerned about threats of secession. States ruling on constitutionality would lead to chaos in the nation. Opponents of the doctrine of nullification were very concerned about threats of secession. States ruling on constitutionality would lead to chaos in the nation.

48 Check for Understanding A ask B: What does the supremacy clause say about conflicts between federal law and state law? The supremacy clause says that state laws may not contradict federal laws. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

49 Check for Understanding B ask A: According to Marbury v. Madison, who has the authority to declare a law unconstitutional? According to Marbury v. Madison, only the Supreme Court has the authority to declare a law unconstitutional. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

50 1828 Congress passed the ‘Tariff of Abominations.’ Calhoun published “South Carolina Exposition and Protest;” explaining the doctrine of nullification. Andrew Jackson was elected president, partly as a protest against the tariff.

51 Check for Understanding A ask B: What did Southerners call the Tariff of 1828? Southerners call the Tariff of 1828 the ‘Tariff of Abominations.’ Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

52 Check for Understanding B ask A: Why did Southerners object to the Tariff of Abominations? Southerners objected to the Tariff of Abominations because it raised prices on imported goods. Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

53 1829 Jackson took office, with Calhoun as his vice-president. Public debate over the tariff and the doctrine of nullification continued. Jackson took office, with Calhoun as his vice-president. Public debate over the tariff and the doctrine of nullification continued.

54 1830 Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne debated the issue of states’ rights and nullification in Congress.Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne debated the issue of states’ rights and nullification in Congress. Jackson learned of Calhoun’s support for nullification.Jackson learned of Calhoun’s support for nullification.

55 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

56 11. What was the Webster-Hayne debate? A.President Jackson’s impeachment. B.the doctrine of nullification. C.internal improvements. D.the Tariff of It was a debate between Senators Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne over...

57 1832 Congress reduced the tariff, but not enough to make Southerners happy.Congress reduced the tariff, but not enough to make Southerners happy. South Carolina nullified both tariffs, threatened to secede, and began building an army.South Carolina nullified both tariffs, threatened to secede, and began building an army. Jackson was re-elected (without Calhoun); threatened to use force against South Carolina to enforce federal laws.Jackson was re-elected (without Calhoun); threatened to use force against South Carolina to enforce federal laws.

58 Check for Understanding Who debated the nullification issue in Congress? How did Congress try to solve the crisis? How did South Carolina respond? What threat does Jackson make? Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

59 1833 Henry Clay created another compromise tariff, and it was quickly passed by Congress. South Carolina repealed its bill of nullification, and the crisis was averted, ending the threat of civil war.

60 Check for Understanding Who helped the nation avoid war over the Tariff of Abominations? What did Clay do to help? How did South Carolina respond to the new compromise tariff? Be sure to restate the question in your answer!

61 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

62 12. How was the nullification crisis resolved? A.President Jackson sent federal troops into South Carolina to collect the tariff. B.the Webster-Hayne debate gave everyone a better understanding of the issues. C.South Carolina came up with a new tariff rate that Congress quickly accepted. D.Henry Clay worked out a compromise tariff that South Carolina could accept. A.President Jackson sent federal troops into South Carolina to collect the tariff. B.the Webster-Hayne debate gave everyone a better understanding of the issues. C.South Carolina came up with a new tariff rate that Congress quickly accepted. D.Henry Clay worked out a compromise tariff that South Carolina could accept.


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