Presentation on theme: "European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution Workshop on Review and Assessment of European Air Pollution."— Presentation transcript:
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution Workshop on Review and Assessment of European Air Pollution Policies Gothenburg, October 2005 Matti Vainio Peter Gammeltoft and Duncan Johnstone Peter Gammeltoft and Duncan Johnstone Clean Air & Transport Unit DG Environment
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Existing air pollution policy l AQ framework and daughter directives l National Emission Ceilings (NEC) directive m Gothenburg Protocol of the Convention of Long- Range Transboundary Air Pollution l Vehicle emission and fuel quality standards (Auto Oil programmes) l Stationary sources (LCP, fuel distribution, IPPC…) l Products (e.g. solvents, paints)
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Why Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme? l Continuing problems with air pollution, especially particulate matter and ozone l Increasing evidence of adverse health effects l Need to update and improve projections and modelling l Difficulty in achieving AQ limit values (especially NO 2 and particulate matter)
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe l Thematic Strategy on air pollution to be adopted in three years l Using a knowledge-based approach l Objectives: l Achieving levels of air quality that do not give rise to significant negative impacts on and risks to human health and the environment; (Art 7.1. of 6 th EAP) l No exceedence of critical loads and levels for acidification or eutrophication 6 th Environment Action Programme (EAP) of July 2002 requires
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Air pollution relevant objectives for environment and health l Climate change and air pollution measures should be compatible. l Improve the monitoring and assessment of air quality l Improve the provision of information to the public, including by indicators l Adopt appropriate measures concerning ground-level ozone and particulates l Play a leading role in the negotiations on and strengthening the links and interactions with international processes contributing to clean air in Europe l Develop Community instruments to reduce emissions Art 7 (f) of 6EAP
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Thematic Strategy is set to l Strengthen a coherent and integrated policy on air pollution to cover priorities for further actions, m the review and updating where appropriate of air quality standards and m national emission ceilings m with a view to reach the long term objective of no exceedence of critical loads and levels and m the development of better systems for gathering information, modelling and forecasting; l Thus, it will set goals and priorities for action, and will be accompanied by or followed by legislative proposals, as appropriate Art 7 (f) of 6EAP
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Stakeholder consultation in CAFE l CAFE Steering Group l WG on Implementation l WG on Particulate Matter l WG on Target Setting and Policy Assessment l Ad hoc consultations m Agricultural projections, CBA methodology, transport sector (TREMOVE model) projections m Workshops (e.g. Gothenburg) l Peer review of key models
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe 3 pillars of CAFE l Scientific advice m WHO Systematic review of Air Quality guidelines m Advice of CLRTAP WG Effects on ecosystems l Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM) m Least cost solutions for multi-pollutant/multi-effects (human health and environment) l Cost-Benefit Analysis m Peer-reviewed methodology based on regional scale modelling of pollutant dispersion
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Emissions, health and environment impacts up to 2020 l Most emissions are decreasing though there are exceptions (e.g. ammonia) l Air quality is improving for all pollutants m But still significant problems to be addressed (e.g. particulate matter & ozone) l Impacts on the natural environment (acidification & damage from ozone) are reducing m But still significant problems, particularly eutrophication. l Thematic Strategy will be mainly about making existing policies work better with some new measures as well.
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Air quality problems l WHO (Global burden of disease): m About 100,000 people die every year prematurely due to exposure to particulate matter in Europe l WHO Systematic review: m Currently PM shortens life expectancy by about 9 months in the EU, in some Member States up to 1 to 2 years m No safe level for human exposure to particulate matter in air m Smaller particles may be more damaging l WHO/UNECE Task Force on Health: m No threshold for ozone effects on humans but analysis starts from background levels in air
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Anthropogenic contribution to PM Rural concentrations, annual mean [µg/m 3 ] from known anthropogenic sources excluding sec. org. aerosols Average of calculations for 1997, 1999, 2000 & 2003 meteorologies
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Ecosystems impacts up to 2020 l Acidification of ecosystems is decreasing r But still two thirds of lakes in Southern Scandinavia at risk. r About half of the forest plots in the European-wide survey for forests (EU Forest Focus) are at risk. l Eutrophication of ecosystems widespread r Half of ecosystems with unsustainable levels of nitrogen deposition. l Ozone exposure is reducing as peak levels decrease r But significant areas of European forests at risk from ozone exposure at levels up to six times the safe level.
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Acid deposition to forests in 2020 Percentage of forest area with acid deposition above critical loads, using ecosystem-specific deposition. Average of calculations for 1997, 1999, 2000 & 2003 meteorologies Acidification of forests continues … Source: CAFE Baseline, RAINS (2004)
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Excess of critical loads for eutrophication Percentage of ecosystems area with nitrogen deposition above critical loads, using grid-average deposition. Average of calculations for 1997, 1999, 2000 & 2003 meteorologies Source: CAFE Baseline, RAINS (2004)
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Conclusions l With decreasing pollution, adverse impacts are expected to decline in the future l However, problems will not be entirely resolved: m PM remains serious (about 5 months life expectancy loss in 2020) m Ozone: r Remains a significant cause for premature deaths (Several thousands cases in 2020) r Vegetation damage: Wide-spread violations of long-term sustainable levels will prevail m Acidification of ecosystems will not disappear, mainly due to ammonia m Eutrophication remains unresolved again because of ammonia emissions
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Some possible measures l Streamlining current Air Quality legislation m Consolidation & simplification of ambient air quality legislation (e.g. reporting) m Improving implementation by Member States m Introducing a air quality limit value for PM 2.5 m Revising the NEC directive l Uptated vehicle emissions standards (Euro 5 and 6) m Especially to reduce particulate matter l Small scale combustion m Product emission standards and Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control to reduce emissions of particulate matter & nitrogen oxides l Integration measures m Agriculture (IPPC, less fertiliser, animal waste disposal etc.) m Transport (charging & other measures to reduce pollution) m Ship emissions (more action in the IMO for cleaner engines)
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Next steps l On-going consultation on optimisation scenarios (WG Target Setting and Policy Assessment, CAFE Steering Group plus other events (eg. Gothenburg)) l Discuss outline of Thematic Strategy in CAFE Steering Group (November 2004) l Public consultation (December January 2005) including possibly targeted consultation l Discuss content of Thematic Strategy in CAFE Steering Group (February 2005) l Send for Inter-Service consultation 1 April 2005 l Commission adoption in May 2005 m Presentation in the CAFE Steering Group in May 2005
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Questions for working groups l Given WHO and WG PM advice what ambient concentration of PM2.5 should be proposed? m WG PM suggested micrograms per cubic meter m US standard is 15 micrograms per cubic meter l Assuming PM 2.5 becomes the focus of attention, what should we do about PM 10 ? m Also, should changes be proposed in monitoring requirements? l What about supersite monitoring of PM? l Given WHO advice m Keep NO 2 concentration limit value untouched? m Any changes to 3rd Daughter Directive on Ozone? l Main research needs for the period in atmospheric pollution in the EU and in the world? l Which measures should we specifically look into? Why? m Ideas for reducing ship emissions?
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Questions (cont.) l NEC: How to reduce ammonia emissions, which is becoming a major source of impacts in acidification and eutrophication? l Pros and cons of introducing a ceiling for primary PM 2.5 ? l Given that hemispheric pollution is becoming increasingly important, what would be the pros and cons of introducing a NEC ceiling for methane? l What, if anything, should we say about the instititutional framework to control transboundary air pollution given: m increased contribution of hemispheric background m enlargement of the EU l We are planning to hold a specific web-based consultation m What would be your three favourite questions? l Using economic instruments, like (national) taxation/charging or (either national or EU-level) emission trading m Should the Thematic Strategy encourage, discourage or be neutral?
European Commission - DG Environment Clean Air for Europe Advertisement Conference on Policy Instruments to Reduce Air Pollution Brussels, November 2004 Organised by European Commission and the Network of Experts in Benefits and Economic Instruments of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Look at the application form