CLRTP particulate matter expert group Objective Improved technical understanding of the abatement options and the technical possibilities to reduce concentrations of particulate matter under the Convention
Scope The work of the group is scientific and technical The conclusions and recommendations will be important for helping policy makers with future decisions on emissions controls Chaired by UK and Germany
First meeting May 2005, Berlin Main discussion items: sources contributing to the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM); assessing future changes in PM emissions and concentrations, as related to existing protocols to the Convention and other instruments; technical and non-technical measures available for further reduction of PM levels; and adequate strategy to address PM under the Convention.
Key points, conclusions and recommendations Key points: noted the strengthened evidence showing links between relative risk of mortality and levels of PM 2.5, while noting PM 10 is not innocuous; no evidence for a threshold of effects at the population level; and recognized that even in 2010 there will be significant mortality associated with PM levels and there was a need for further policy action.
Key points, conclusions and recommendations models show transboundary character of not only secondary PM 2.5 but also primary PM 2.5 and to a lesser extent PM 10. potential to reduce further both primary and secondary PM. Abatement measures should address both. While the focus should be to reduce PM 2.5, the coarse fraction should not be ignored; potential for further emissions reductions but there is a big difference in this potential between EU countries and EECCA countries. Specific strategies may need to be developed for EECCA countries;
Key points, conclusions and recommendations even with current legislation, in 2020 there still will be potential for applying readily available low cost measures to reduce emissions; other measures though technically feasible could only be applied at high cost; and in addition to technical measures there is potential to explore the use of non-technical measures.
Work plan 2006 Item a Assess the degree of control of pollutants contributing to the formation of PM already provided by existing protocols to the Convention and submit a draft report to the Working Group on Strategies and Review at its thirty- eighth session in 2006; (United Kingdom/Co-Chair and Netherlands)
Work plan 2006 Item b Review current work under the Convention on PM, taking also into account the latest results of the forthcoming Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution of the European Community and similar strategies of other Parties and submit a draft report to the Working Group on Strategies and Review at its thirty-eighth session in 2006; (United Kingdom/Co-Chair, European Commission, United States and Netherlands)
Work plan 2006 Item c Using, inter alia, the results of the EMEP model, prepare supporting information for the third meeting of Expert Group for reviewing the characteristics of PM as a transboundary pollutant, e.g. contribution to ambient concentrations from national, regional and hemispheric sources, and consider the implications of choosing different particle size fractions; (Co-Chairs to liaise with MSC-W)
Work plan 2006 Item d (revised) Consider, inter alia, the work of CIAM, MSC- W and CCC on scientific evidence and technical requirements to reduce exposure to primary and secondary PM. Develop, where possible, further technical and non-technical measures to assist parties to reduce PM emissions and exposure and to prepare supporting information for the third meeting of Expert Group (Germany/Co-Chair to liaise with CIAM)
Input and exchanges with other groups/organisations Task b EU Commission Tasks b & d TF integrated assessment modelling/CIAM Task c TF measurements and modelling Tasks c & d Meteorological Synthesising Centre West TF emission inventories & projections Task d Chemical Coordinating Centre
Meetings 2006 Third meeting Dessau – 13 & 14 March 2006 Report to WGSR, September 2006 Fourth meeting? London, late 2006
Scope of 2nd meeting Workshop – plenty of time for discussion Consider key questions Start to think about possible options for incorporating control of PM emissions and exposure into CLRTAP Lay the foundations for report to WGSR in September 2006 No formal co-chairs’ report
Transboundary PM characterisation 1. To what extent is PM a transboundary pollutant? 2. Is PM a hemispheric pollutant? 3. Which components of PM have a significant transboundary element? 4. What are the important emissions sources of transboundary PM?
Primary PM emissions sources 5. Are primary PM emissions important in transboundary pollution? 6. Are PM emissions inventories robust? 7. What are the important uncertainties in PM emissions inventories? 8. How might PM emissions inventories be improved? 9. Are measurements and modelling robust enough to apportion imported and exported PM?
Mitigation of primary PM emissions 10. What are the key sources of primary PM emissions? 11. What abatement measures are currently used to mitigate primary emissions of ambient PM? 12. What measures are most suitable for EECCA countries? 13. What abatement measures are available to further reduce ambient concentrations of ambient PM in (a) EECCA and (b) other countries?
Conclusions of 2 nd meeting PM has an important transboundary element. The extent depends on the region/country. Secondary PM 2.5 and primary PM 2.5 are important. PM 10 to a lesser extent. There is potential to reduce further both primary and secondary PM. Abatement measures should address both. While the focus should be to reduce PM 2.5, the coarse fraction should not be ignored; There is a big difference in this potential between EU countries and EECCA countries. Specific strategies may need to be developed for EECCA countries;
Conclusions There is enough evidence (based on emissions inventories and modelling) to identify key sources - which ones are important depends on the region EU Road transport and shipping Residential and smaller combustion plant Industrial processes and waste Agriculture EECCA All sectors, particularly production and non-industrial processes
Conclusions There is room for improvement beyond CLE for key emissions sectors Further reductions of primary PM emissions are a cost-effective means for improving ambient PM 2.5
Conclusions Modelling and emissions inventories are uncertain and could be improved, but they’re robust enough to identify key sources Encourage all countries, particularly EECCA, to develop, improve and report primary PM emissions inventories requires capacity building Encourage Parties to support improvement and harmonization of emissions factors and activity data; this may be through the work of TFEIP and its inventory reviews
Conclusions The options for controlling PM under the Convention will influence the level of certainty required for inventories and modelling Inventories and modelling should be fit for purpose, not necessarily technically ideal
Next steps For next meeting (Spring 2006) Draft report on tasks a and b by February 2006, for discussion (Netherlands to lead in coordination with IIASA) Virtual working groups to draft dossiers on key sectors (focus on primary PM) Abatement measures (including extent of implementation and potential for further implementation) Road transport and shipping (Germany to lead) Residential and smaller combustion plant (Sweden to lead with input from Austria and Switzerland) Industrial processes and waste (UK to lead with input from France and Germany) Agriculture (IIASA to lead)
Next steps For next meeting (Spring 2006) Co-chairs to draft Summary of conclusions to date and outline structure for report Technical input for policy instruments IIASA to provide summary of available cost information
Next steps For autumn 2006 Virtual working groups to draft sections on key sectors (focus on primary PM) Quality and completeness of emissions data Contribution to ambient concentrations and potential exposure
Third meeting Key questions to the group: Is there a significant potential to cost-effectively further reduce peoples’ exposure [ambient concentrations of] to PM beyond the basecase? If so, to what extent do existing instruments (e.g. IPPC, CLRTAP) mitigate ambient PM concentrations. How might existing instruments be modified, or new instruments developed to further reduce public exposure to PM?