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5/6 Walker Due Monday Dec.15/03

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1 5/6 Walker Due Monday Dec.15/03
Canada 5/6 Walker Due Monday Dec.15/03

2 History In the early 1500s, Jacques Cartier used a First Nations word for village, “kanata”, to refer to the country he had encountered. European map makers later used “Canada” as a name for all the land north of the St. Lawrence River. Canada was home to aboriginal peoples for thousands of years before the arrival of the Europeans, and so it's appropriate that our name should come from their language.

3 History The origin and meaning of the name Canada has been a matter of surmise since the arrival of the first explorer. Jacques Cartier, reporting on his voyage, noted that "kanata" was an Iroquois word meaning town, or cluster of dwellings. Other reports have it that early Spanish or Portuguese explorers, disappointed in not finding gold or other riches, derided the country as Canada. Yet others have ascribed the word to Latin or Sanskrit. The weight of opinion to date, however, favors the Aboriginal origin noted in Cartier's report. Whatever the source, the Constitution Act, 1867, Canada's original constitution, announced that the name of the new dominion would be Canada.

4 History In 28,000 B.C the first residents of what now is Canada arrived over the Bering Strait. In 8000 B.C. Most parts of Southern Canada has been occupied by "Indians. in 5000 B.C. Petroglyphs made in what is now northwestern Ontario. In 3000 B.C. A human face is carved into the surface of a rock in what is now southwestern Québec. It is a called Coteau-du-lac. In 2000 B.C. Pre-Dorset Inuit people migrate through the Bering Strait into what is now the Northwest Territories. They bring carefully crafted artifacts such as harpoon heads and lances.

5                                                                     Maps In April, 1/1999 the internal borders of Canada following the creation of Nunavut, which was established in 1993 and officially came into being in April 1999. The new territory is the biggest change in Canada’s boundaries since Newfoundland joined Confederation in 1949. The federal government of Winnipeg needed general maps of regions newly opened up to settlement and decided to produce maps at a scale of one inch to three miles (1:190 080). The maps were easy to produce using existing information. In all, 134 such maps were produced.

6 Canada Facts Area: 9,976,140 sq km (3,851,788 sq miles) Population: 31,413,990 (July 2002) Capital (population): Ottawa (1,128,900) Government: Federal multiparty constitutional monarchy county's Groups: British 34%, French 26%, German 4%, Italian 3%, Ukrainian 2%, Native American (Amerindian/Inuit) 1.5%, Chinese 1% Language: English and French (both official) Religions: Christianity (Roman Catholic 47%, Protestant 41%), Judaism, Islam, Hinduism Currency: Canadian dollar = 100 cents

7 Alberta Only in the past hundred years has Alberta seen people settle, before that the province was primarily uninhabited wilderness. Today, Alberta is home to two of Canada’s largest cities (Calgary and Edmonton) and is covered by huge wheat fields, cattle Edmonton is spread out along the winding North Saskatchewan River and ranches and mineral and fossil fuel mines. Alberta sits on the western side of the Prairies, and the Rocky Mountains rise from the flat lands on the west of the province . Calgary is home to many of Canada’s national corporations, second only to Toronto. The office lined streets are ranked as the cleanest in the world. The provincial capital’s rising population of over 800,000 people draws in the tourists from across the world. Banff and the Rocky Mountains are visible to the west of the city. Edmonton attracts tourists due to its proximity to Jasper and the Rockies. Despite many of the city’s attractions and points of interest, the most famous part to Edmonton is the West Edmonton Mall, the world’s largest mall, and it is massive! The mall covers over 48 hectares and contains nearly 1000 stores and many other attractions such as a huge water park, amusement parks, Deep Sea environments, themed streets and so much more.

8 British Columbia Simply known as BC, British Columbia contains some of the most varied and spectacular scenery in the world. To the east are the Rocky Mountains, to the north are many lakes, forests, there is a small desert in the south and the west of the province lies along the Pacific Ocean coast. Heavily influenced from California, which is easier to access than the rest of Canada, British Columbians live a different lifestyle to the rest of Canada. One of the most spectacularly scenic cities in Canada, Vancouver is nestled between the sea and the mountains in the very south west of the province. As one of the most cosmopolitan cities in North America, Vancouver is home to many new immigrants is easily the third largest city in Canada (behind Toronto and Montreal.)

9 Manitoba Heading west towards the Prairies, Manitoba is the gateway province filled with lakes and National Parkland. Winnipeg, like many Canadian cities, is located in the south of the province and lies halfway between the coasts. Despite being so far inland, Winnipeg is still easily recognizable as a western city with its skyline and architecturally diverse streets. In the north of Manitoba, Churchill, on the shore of Hudson Bay, draws interest from around the world with its unique wildlife including Polar Bears that often wander down the streets of the town. With no roads this far north, most people arrive by plane or the more adventurous take the train from Winnipeg which takes about 35 hours.

10 New Brunswick The heavily forested maritime province of New Brunswick lies between Nova Scotia and Quebec. The Saint John River valley runs south along the west of the province through the industrial city of Saint John into the Bay of Fundy. Here the world’s highest tides are very apparent, especially at the Reversing Falls where the tide change is so dramatic it causes rapids in the river mouth which change direction with the tide. Monkton is the gateway to both Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia making it a popular transport stop over. Most of the north of the province is mountainous while the south and along the Saint John River, farming and pastoral lands occupy much of the dramatic views

11 Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada’s most easterly province Newfoundland (pronounced "new-fun-land") and Labrador consists of two main entities. The Island of Newfoundland, which is the home to the provincial capital St John’s. The other entity is Labrador, north of Newfoundland. Most of the population of the province lis in the far more accessible Newfoundland. The inland areas are heavily forested with peat bogs and lakes, where as the shorelines are spotted with towns. St John’s is the oldest city in North America yet the province was the last to join the to Canadian Confederation as late as A reminder to how ‘new’ Canada is as a country.

12 Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is covered by artic tundra, mountains and forests. The population is spread across the huge, vast areas but most is concentrated in the Yellowknife. Yellowknife is essentially a government town but contains the territory's commercial and service centre as well as being one of the few places north of the Arctic Circle that attract tourists regularly.

13 Nova Scotia When you are in Nova Scotia everything is a reminder about how the sea influences the province and it’s people. Although not an Island, Nova Scotia is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean with only 45km wide connection to the rest of Canada. Where ever you are in Nova Scotia, you are never further than 56km from the sea. Most of the province is covered in dense forest and gentle rolling hills. The Bay of Fundy on the west coast has the world’s highest tides. Cape Breton in the north is a large island that accounts for about one fifth of the landmass in Nova Scotia. The mountains here are more rugged and reminiscent of the Scottish Highlands. Halifax is the Capital of Nova Scotia.

14 Nunavut On the 1st of April 1999, the dream of many Inuit people was finally realized with the creation of the newest province, Nunavut. One of the most sparsely populated areas in the world, Nunavut reaches from northern Manitoba and Quebec to the North Pole. Most of the population speak the native language Inuktitut. Iqualuit is the governing town of the province. Temperatures rarely rise above freezing and in summer 8 degrees is the highest average temperature. With a population of just 4000 Iqaluit is the smallest city in Canada and also one of the hardest to access any time of the year. Located on Baffin Island, air is the only realistic way to gain entry to this expensive and extraordinary place.

15 Ontario The centrally located province of Ontario is home to the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, Niagara Falls, Algonquin Provincial Park and many architectural masterpieces such as the CN Tower, Sky Dome, and many of the national parliament buildings in the capital city of Ottawa. Toronto, the most popular city to visit in Canada and the largest city in the country is also the provincial capital. Located on Lake Ontario, one of the Great Lakes, Toronto is the technology capital and home of the CN Tower, the world’s tallest man-made structure. In the east of Ontario, Ottawa sits on the south bank of the Ottawa River, with the twin city of Hull on the north bank in the province of Quebec. Around the gothic parliament buildings you can often find traditionally dressed Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers.

16 P.E.I Canada’s smallest province known simply as PEI is linked to the mainland by the Confederation Bridge and at 13km in length it is the world’s longest. Prince Edward Island is an area in which the residents have fought hard to keep the way it was when it was first inhabited by westerners. There is not a lot to do but the beautiful scenery makes up for it all. Every area of the island is easily accessible by the many roads that crisscross the pastoral landscape.

17 Quebec The heart of French Canada, where English is considered a distant second language, Quebec (pronounced ‘KebEck’) is unlike anywhere else in North America. The culture, architecture, music, religion and way of life is truly unique. The capital of the province, Quebec City, has a very noticeable European feel to it. Modern buildings are few and far between, but the impressive design of the walled city is quite overwhelming in it’s location on a hill on the side of the Saint Lawrence River. In Montreal (pronounced ‘Mor’E’Al) English and French are spoken side by side. Being served at a shop or restaurant, you never know which language the person will speak. Over 40% of Quebec’s population live here making it the second largest French speaking city in the world. The Bi-Lingual status of Montreal makes for a decidedly different air to other Canadian cities. Most of the downtown of this Olympic city can be accessed by underground malls that consist of over 40km of passages lined with shops and restaurants, linked by malls and the popular Paris style Metro.

18 Saskatchewan The home of the roaming North American Prairie Bison, Saskatchewan is located in the heart of the plains. With rolling farm fields and grasslands, the scenery feels endless. Despite this, there are more than 100,000 lakes spread across the province. Regina is the southerly located capital and like many provincial capitals in Canada, Regina is a small, quiet city of under 185,000 residents that pretty much closes after the sun sets. Despite this, Regina is the commercial, financial and industrial hub of the province. The clean, wide streets and low skyline surrounded by wheat fields give Saskatoon a different feels to it. Saskatoon is smack in the middle of the Prairies and traveling to and from the city, this fact is very apparent. The city spans the South Saskatchewan River, with the downtown area located on the north shores linked to the south by seven bridges.

19 Yukon territory Wedged between Alaska and the Northwest Territories on each side, Yukon Territory is bounded by British Columbia, to the south and the Arctic Ocean to the north. The Yukon is one of the easiest places north of the arctic circle to access, however, it is not all that does not mean it is simple. The only city in the territory, Whitehorse is in the south of the territory and can be accessed by roads but these roads deteriorate rapidly the further north they go. With only 20,000 residents, nearly everyone in the territory lives in Whitehorse. Despite the population size, the city limits cover 421 sq km making it the largest urban designated areas in Canada. The central downtown area of the city is very small but the residents are spread across this large area giving them plenty of space to live.

20 Bibliography Websites
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