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New era for Materials Technology in Korea PRICM-8 Waikoloa, Hawaii August 5, 2013 Dr. Dongwha Kum Acting Vice President, NAEK Endowed Chair Researcher,

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Presentation on theme: "New era for Materials Technology in Korea PRICM-8 Waikoloa, Hawaii August 5, 2013 Dr. Dongwha Kum Acting Vice President, NAEK Endowed Chair Researcher,"— Presentation transcript:

1 New era for Materials Technology in Korea PRICM-8 Waikoloa, Hawaii August 5, 2013 Dr. Dongwha Kum Acting Vice President, NAEK Endowed Chair Researcher, KIST

2 QUIET & CONTINUOUS improvement in PROPERTIES & COST of conventional materials Revolution in Materials Technology PRICM-3(1998) cost down of ~2,5% per year 3.5~7% productivity increase per year significant improvement in performance (e.g. Si 10,000X) ~ 50% decrease in employment dramatic improvement in working environment Prof. Thomas Eagar ~ 2.5% new businesses per year in advanced materials

3 Contents Introduction Matured New Materials Challenge Forwards Summary & Conclusion 1 2 3 4

4 Korea at a glance Land ( )99,600 (109 th ) Population (million)49,410 (25 th ) GDP (US$, trillion)1.014 (12 th ) GDP per person (US$)20,759 (29 th ) Trade volume (US$, trillion)1.036 (9 th ) KOSPI Total(US$, trillion)1.010(2012) Economic Profile(2011)

5 Scientific papers per1M population during 1990~2001 Korea at glance R/D Budget(B USD)450.2(6 th )R/D Personnel(FTE) 288.901(6 th ) - Public : Private(%)26.3 : 73.7Scientific Papers, SCI 44,718(11 th ) R/D Budget/GDP4.03%(2 nd )US Patents12,126(4 th ) Science & Technology(2012)

6 1. Crude Oil Top 10 Imports (2012) 2. Semiconductors 3. Natural Gas 4. Petrochemical Products 5. Coal 10. Fine Chemicals 6. Steel Plates 9. Fabrication Equipment 8. Computers 7. Iron Ore Imports $519.6B Ref: Korea Customs Service

7 1. Oil & Petrochemical Products Top 10 Exports (2012) 2.Semiconductors 3. Automobiles 4. Ships & Marine Structures 5. Flat Panel Display & Sensors 6. Automobile Parts 7. Wireless telecommunication equipment 10. Electronic Goods & Devices 9. Plastics 8. Iron & Steel Products Exports $547.9B Ref: Korea Customs Service

8 Major Industry (2010) 32.4% 35% 49.3% 59% Samsung Hynix Memory Chip 1st Ship Building 1st 30.2% 47% TFT-LCD 1st Mobile Phone 1st 25.3% 30% 3.9% 4.2% Steel 5thAutomobile 5th 5.5% 30.2% 5.5%5.5% Petrochemicals 5th – Hyundai STX Samsung LG POSCO Hyundai KIA, GM Daewoo Samsung LG, KT GS Caltex LC

9 Materials Technology of Korea Production : 200B USD(18.5% of manufacturing) Employee : 350,779(13.3% of manufacturing) Exports : 91.6B USD Imports : 71.4B USD * mostly high-tech materials Materials Industry Profile(2011) Ref::

10 Materials Technology of Korea R/D Activity(2011) R/D Budget(M USD)* 510 Public : Private(%) 40 : 60 R/D Personnel(FTE) 19,259 Scientific Papers, SCI 4,358(4 th ) US Patents 259(4 th ) * 8.7% of total manufacturing Ref:

11 Ethylene Production(2012) : 8.4MT 4 th largest in the world 4 th largest industry in Korea Polymer Industry in Korea Ref: KPA

12 Foreign Dependence : LCD Story Cross cut view of LCD

13 Key Materials for LCDForeign DependenceSupplyer Liquid Crystal100%Meck, Chissco Alignment Layer Film100%Nissan, JSP, Chissco Polarizer Film100%Nitto Denko Color Filter77%JSR, Tokyo Ink, Sumitomo Photoresist73%AZEM, TOK. Zeon Black Matrix74%TOK, MCSC Photo Spacer71%JSR Over Coat62%JSR, Chissco Foreign Dependence : LCD Story solar cells 82%, secondary Li battery 53% Key materials from foreign suppliers occupy 55% production cost of LCD in Korea. Ref: Displaybank

14 Output Time Market Market Pull Laboratory Technology Push Valley of Death Challenge for New Materials

15 Government effort to improve MCT 2001 2002 ~ 2011 2012 ~ 2020 Strengthen ecosystem of materials industry Basic plan for MCT Special Act for MCT Promotion MCT 2010 1.3B USD Proactive R/D Reliability Centers MCT 2020 Extend the MCT2010 Multi- disciplinary R/D All Value chain Improved trade balance

16 Samsung (May, 13, 2013) Samsung Future Technology Foundation - Selected Materials technology aimed for new industry - Support material design to pilot demonstration Hyundai Motors (April 29, 2913) Advanced Materials Initiative for automobile parts and applications LG Electronics (July 10, 2013) Vehicle Components R/D Center(Incheon) for green automobile parts and devices News 1

17 R/D personnel increases fast at major companies, July 3, 2013. News 2 Ref: Chosun Daily

18 Contents Introduction Matured New Materials Challenge Forwards Summary & Conclusion 1 2 3 4

19 Issues in Materials Community Conventional Materials - continuous innovation in manufacturing processes - challenge to new materials and technologies Matured New Materials - high demand for improved and advanced materials - cooperative efforts to overcome death valley Nano-Materials - strong emphasis on potential applications - cultivate new business with collective efforts Emerging New Materials - more proactive in emerging fields

20 Prod. (M tpy) 30 20 10 1980199020001970 2010 73 1 st Phase Constr. at Pohang Completed (1.03M tpy) 68 Est. 83 Pohang Steelworks Const. Completed (9.1M tpy) 92 Gwangyang Steelworks Const. Completed (20.8 M tpy ) 94 Listed on the NYSE (1 st Korean Company) 00 Privatization 37 M tpy (6 th ) The most competitive steel company Steel Success Strategy June, 2013, NY Steels : POSCO Ref:

21 New Process : POIST POSCO-Saarstatl-BOP Compact Endless Casting – Rolling Mill FINEX Process Low-grade raw materials Eco-friendly process Low construction cost Athermal converter Seamless process Ref: OJ Kwon, POSCO

22 TWIP steel for Automobile Bumper Beam, Hydroforming FIAT New Panda(201) New Plate Steels: Fe-Mn Alloy « ferrite austenite non-magnetic twin defects strong & low-T toughness Good absorption of vibration Fe-3~27%Mn Alloys Ref: OJ Kwon, POSCO

23 Portable DevicesElectric Vehicle Capacity< 10 Wh40 kWh Energy density150 Wh/kg300 Wh/kg Power density150 W/kg600 W/kg Cycle life5005,000 Safety-10 to 60 °CUp to 200 °C Cost$1000/kWh$300/kWh Cell Chemistry(+)LiCoO 2 / C(-)(+)LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 / C(-) (+) Cathode LiCoO 2 Li 1-x CoO 2 + xLi + xe - () Anode C n + xLi + xe - C n Li x LiCoO 2 + C n Li 1-x CoO 2 + C n Li x Battery Needs for EV

24 Ceramic Layer PO Separator Secondary Li Battery : LG Chem PO Separator Polymer membrane Solvent : EC/DMC/EMC Electrolyte : Li 4 PF 6 Ceramic layers prevent shrinkage less than 10% LiMn 2 O 4 Ref: LG Chem

25 Scale down of Semiconductor Memory 50nm 40nm 30nm 20nm 10nm 2008 200920102011201220132014 DRAM NAND source: SK Hynix Technology node

26 DRAM Cell Capacitor Technology node oxide 70nm50nm60nm30nm40nm20nm 100 80 40 60 20 T oxide 9Å 8Å 7Å 5Å 11Å Aspect ratio of storage node Ref: SJ Hong, SK Hynix

27 Dielectric Materials for DRAM Ref: DS Kil, SK Hynix

28 Future of Semiconductor Memory 50nm 40nm 30nm 20nm 10nm 2008 200920102011201220132014 DRAM NAND Cell design : 4F 2, : 2F 2, 3D New materials/processes: high k, pattern Efficiency & stacking: multi-bit, 3DIC TSV NVM: PRAM, FeRAM, STT-RAM Ref: SK Hynix Technology node

29 16Gb Memory: eight 2Gb NAND flashes w/ TSV connection High Density High Speed Less Power Less Noise Lower Profile Smaller Form Factor Packaging : 3D IC TSV 3D DRAM dies w/ TSV connection Ref: TSV: Trough Silicon Via

30 Progress of LED Materials White LED 150lm/W

31 Etch pit density according to growing direction Other defects: bubbles, GB. lineages a-axisc-axis Sapphire(α-Al 2 O 3 ) Ref: Sapphire Technology

32 VHGF : Vertical Horizontal Gradient Freezing growing cycle total charge productionelectricity -37% -28% -42% +43% VHGF Growth of Sapphire a-axis c-axis Ref: Sapphire Technology

33 Growth axis Growth Method EPDFWHMManufacturer A-axis VHGF3x10 2 /cm 2 < 9arcsecSapphire Technology Kyropoulos10x10 2 /cm 2 ~ 12arcsecRubicon, Monocrystal EFG10 5~6 /cm 2 > 20arcsecNamiki C-axisCzochralski10 3~4 /cm 2 > 12arcsecKyocera Quality of VHGF Sapphire XRD (0006) rocking curve of 6 sapphire crystal CL(MonoCL4 + ) Image of (002)GaN on sapphire σ = 1.97 ±0.28 x 10 +8 /cm 2 FWHM = 214.4 ± 5.9 arcsec Ref: Sapphire Technology

34 ETL Substrate (Glass, plastics, metal foil) ITO HIL HTL Cathode EML EIL + Exciton low work function metals; Li, Ca, Mg - mixed layer structure - insulator/metal design Metal-organic complex; Alq 3, Gaq 3 Amine type materials w/ high hole mobility Amine type materials; CuPc - good contact w/ anode - smoothing effect on ITO Flexible display; Polyimide - colorless, low TEC, low-k, high modulus Emitting materials DPVBi Alq3 N O N O N O Al N O NCCN Ir(ppy) 3 DCJTB AMOLED : Materials Issues

35 Introduction Matured New Materials Challenge Forwards Summary & Conclusion 1 2 3 4

36 Activity Summary Overcome the valley of death and accelerate market evolution of new materials. Maturing advanced materials through integrated efforts among all actors in the value chain. Increase basic research to continue accumulation of knowledge stock with competent IP policy. Active use of IT-based research tools (i.e., computational materials, materials informatics)

37 Biomaterials for Orthopedic Applications: Mg Mg-Ca-X Mg-Ca Mg Ti Mg-Ca (2.5hrs.) Mg-Ca-X (298hrs.) Mg-Mg 2 Ca Eutectic CT Image after 6months Ref: HK Seok, KIST

38 Density NAND Flash NOR Flash FeRAM Process Speed MRAM DRAM STT MRAM PRAM SRAM Non Volatile Memory

39 Dielectric Time Optical Pulse Substrate reflecctive Electrical Memory (PRAM) 2 Electrode Chalcogenide conductive Dielectric conductive Time Electrical Pulse Tm Tc Time Temperature Write(Reset) Erase(Set) Read(Sense) 0 1 Optical Memory PRAM Ref: BK Chung, KIST

40 Commercial PCM: Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 Ge-Sb-Te phase diagram Dash-type cell for high performance PRAM (SEC, 2010 VLSI) DRAM-like performances with high scalability Prototype PRAM Ref: BK Chung, KIST

41 MRAM STT-MRAM Select Half-select Transistor ON Transistor ON Transistor ON Transistor ON Perfect selectivity Data: Spin Up vs. Down STT-RAM 0 1 1 0 Ref: JY Chang, KIST

42 n V bias p InSb A In high (1) current avalanche state low(0) current Two current states: High & Low current (mA) V bias 100 50 11.13 11.0 B B B B R1R1 R2R2 Magnetic Controlled Logic Device Ref: JY Chang, KIST

43 2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012 Nanotechnology Development Promotion Act Korea Nanotechnolog y Initiative II Nanotechnology Research Association Nanotechnology Information Support System Korea Nanotechnology Research Society National NanoFab Center Korea Advanced NanoFab Center Nanotechnology Roadmap National Nanotechnology Policy Center Nano- Convergence 2020 Program Korea Nanotechnology Initiative I Korea Nanotechnology Initiative III Nanocluster Centers Nanotechnology in Korea Ref: Korea Nanotechnology Annual 2012

44 Dominant Niche Ivory Tower Minor League U.S. Japan Germany Korea Taiwan Israel Sweden Singapore Switzerland Australia Russia France China U.K. Netherlands Italy India Brazil 2007 2008 2009 Technology Development Strength Nanotech Activity 1 35 1 3 5 Canada Ref: Lux Research (2010) World Picture of Nanotechnology 2 4 2 4

45 Nano Convergence 2020 Program Heat spreaders for high power LED lamps Air purification for indoor applications Ceramic inks for printed porcelains High-yield light extraction, OLED Thermal insulation & smart films Sensor kits for illegal light oil source: JK Park, Nano Convergence Foundation

46 MetalsCNT (C)Graphene (G) PhysicsMechanicsQuantum Mechanics Electrical Resistivity ( cm)1.6 x10 -6 (Au) 1.6 x10 -6 1.0 x10 -6 (Au) Mobility (Cm 2 /Vs)~10,0008,000(CVD) Thermal Conductivity (W/mK) 380(Cu)3,00 ~ 3,5005,300 Heat Conductivity (W/m-K)11~1235005300 Surface Area (m 2 /g)~~1,500~2,630 Youngs Modulus (GPa)220(Steel)1,000 ~ 2,000~1,000 Tensile Strength (GPa)<2(Steel)30 ~ 180~130 Failure Strain (%)~> 11> 18 Price ($/m 2 ) 50 (ITO) 70 N/A Graphene Physical Characteristics of Graphene cost competitive to CNT easy dispersion as additives in composites layered structure with high-barrier characteristics thickness : 0.34 ~ 10 nm length/width : 0.3 ~ 100 micron

47 Industrial strength graphene sheets : - pilot plant for large area (Samsung Techwin, 2012) graphene nanoplatelets : - 300ton/year (SSCP, 2013) - 1kg/day (Enbarotech, 2013) - 200ton/year (POSCO/HWC w/ XG Science, 2014) Application Basic Graphene in Korea Academic strength Scientific papers US patents Ref: Korea Nanotechnology Annual 2011

48 SC backsheet Barriers against water, oxidation Heat & vac. shield EMI Paint Printing Ink Home appliances Automobile Building Flexible Touch panel Flexible & Transparent Electrode EMI Shield High Barrier Materials OLED Touch Panel Coating Graphene Sheets + Nano platelets Main Thrust Area Graphene Initiative(2013) source: SH Hong, MKE

49 Computational Materials Science Combinatorial Experiment In-situ Multiple Analysis Materials Informatics Energy Materials Designed by Quantum Alchemy Structural and Environmental Structural and Environmental Materials of Extreme Properties IT Materials to Overcome the Scaling Limit Materials for Augmented Sensing Materials for Augmented Sensing Creative Materials Discovery Program Source : MEST(on discussion)

50 Summary & Conclusion Materials technology has made remarkable progress through continuous evolution in Korea. Innovation in materials and processing technology makes the bread-earning industries competitive. Translational R/D to bridge the valley of death is strongly emphasized. Group efforts covering all value chains is strongly asked in Government R/D of key materials and components. Coordination of inter- & multi-disciplinary corperation becomes more important in newly converging fields (IT+NT+BT).

51 Suggestion PRICM Innovation Forum - on specific public issues - produce tangible outcomes - possibly young scientist program

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