Presentation on theme: "More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, 2007 www.citizenre.com."— Presentation transcript:
More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, SOLAR CELLS FUEL CELL CARS ELECTRIC CARS
Prior application examples: Nanoelectronics
10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 Example: Advancement of the iPod Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!
Shrinking Magnets to the Nanoscale Increases the amount of data stored on a fixed amount of real estate ! Now ~ 100 billion bits/in 2, future target more than 1 trillion bits/in 2 25 DVDs on a disk the size of a quarter, or all Library of Congress books on a 1 sq ft tile!
Computer Microprocessor "Heart of the computer" Does the "thinking"
Shrinking Transistors to the Nanoscale Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip intel.com
Can similar advancements be made in energy technology?
History of Energy Consumption in the U.S. quads year
U.S. Total Energy Flow, 2003 in quadrillion Btu (QBtu) 1 BTU ~ 1055 Joule The U.S. consumes about 100 QBtu annually.
Net imports Consumption Production ProjectionsHistory Total US Energy Production and Consumption, quadrillion Btu
The Earth s Power System The Sun
Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Solar Cells Konarka
Electric Solar Cells Made from single-crystal silicon wafers (conventionally) cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load + - Current The load can be a lamp, an electric motor, a CD player, a toaster, etc wires
Inside a Solar Cell light neutral Si atom +- electron hole The separated charge has higher potential energy than the neutral atom. The electron (and hole) are now free to move independent of one another.
Electric Solar Cells p-n junction interface cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load Current The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cell Volt
Nanostructured Solar Cells + - Sunlight Voltage load Current More interface area - More power!
ONE ROUTE: SELF ASSEMBLY Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size Diblock Copolymers
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Lightest fuel Can make H 2 from water Goals Improve proton membrane Use less catalyst CHEAPER!
Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many application Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others
My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever Do! Thanks for visiting UMass and learning about nanotechnology! Re: Your future