3Example: Advancement of the iPod 10 GB200120 GB200240 GB200480 GB2006160 GB2007Hard driveMagnetic data storageUses nanotechnology!
4Shrinking Magnets to the Nanoscale Increases the amount of data storedon a fixed amount of “real estate” !Now ~ 100 billion bits/in2, future target more than 1 trillion bits/in225 DVDs on a disk the size of a quarter, orall Library of Congress books on a 1 sq ft tile!
5ComputerMicroprocessor"Heart of the computer"Does the "thinking"
6Shrinking Transistors to the Nanoscale Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chipintel.com
7Can similar advancements be made in energy technology?
8History of Energy Consumption in the U.S. quadsyear
9U.S. Total Energy Flow, 2003 in quadrillion Btu (QBtu) 1 BTU ~ 1055 JouleThe U.S. consumes about 100 QBtu annually.
10Total US Energy Production and Consumption, 1980-2030 quadrillion BtuHistoryProjectionsNet importsConsumptionProduction
12Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Konarka
13Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - + + - Made from single-crystal silicon wafers (conventionally)Sunlightwires-cross-sectional view“load”n-type siliconVoltagep-type silicon++-CurrentThe load can be a lamp, an electric motor, a CD player, a toaster, etc
14Inside a Solar Cell light neutral Si atom + - electron hole • The separated charge has higher potential energy than the neutral atom.• The electron (and hole) are now free to move independent of one another.lightneutralSiatom+-electronhole
15Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - - - - -- - - - + 0.5 Volt p-n junction interfaceSunlight-cross-sectional view“load”n-type silicon0.5 VoltVoltagep-type silicon+The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cellCurrent
16Nanostructured Solar Cells Sunlight-“load”Voltage+CurrentMore interface area - More power!
17ONE ROUTE: SELF ASSEMBLY Diblock CopolymersBlock “B”Block “A”PSPMMA~10 nmScale set by molecular sizeOrdered Phases10% A30% A50% A70% A90% A
18Hydrogen Fuel Cell • Lightest fuel • Can make H2 from water Goals Improve proton membraneUse less catalystCHEAPER!
20Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many application PhysicsChemistryBiologyMaterials SciencePolymer ScienceElectrical EngineeringChemical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringMedicineAnd othersElectronicsMaterialsHealth/BiotechChemicalEnvironmentalEnergyAerospaceAutomotiveSecurityForest productsAnd others
21My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever Re: Your futureMy Advice to Students:Pursue your interestsAsk questionsBe cleverDo!Thanks for visiting UMass and learning about nanotechnology!