3 Example: Advancement of the iPod 10 GB200120 GB200240 GB200480 GB2006160 GB2007Hard driveMagnetic data storageUses nanotechnology!
4 Shrinking Magnets to the Nanoscale Increases the amount of data storedon a fixed amount of “real estate” !Now ~ 100 billion bits/in2, future target more than 1 trillion bits/in225 DVDs on a disk the size of a quarter, orall Library of Congress books on a 1 sq ft tile!
5 ComputerMicroprocessor"Heart of the computer"Does the "thinking"
6 Shrinking Transistors to the Nanoscale Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chipintel.com
7 Can similar advancements be made in energy technology?
8 History of Energy Consumption in the U.S. quadsyear
9 U.S. Total Energy Flow, 2003 in quadrillion Btu (QBtu) 1 BTU ~ 1055 JouleThe U.S. consumes about 100 QBtu annually.
10 Total US Energy Production and Consumption, 1980-2030 quadrillion BtuHistoryProjectionsNet importsConsumptionProduction
12 Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Konarka
13 Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - + + - Made from single-crystal silicon wafers (conventionally)Sunlightwires-cross-sectional view“load”n-type siliconVoltagep-type silicon++-CurrentThe load can be a lamp, an electric motor, a CD player, a toaster, etc
14 Inside a Solar Cell light neutral Si atom + - electron hole • The separated charge has higher potential energy than the neutral atom.• The electron (and hole) are now free to move independent of one another.lightneutralSiatom+-electronhole
15 Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - - - - -- - - - + 0.5 Volt p-n junction interfaceSunlight-cross-sectional view“load”n-type silicon0.5 VoltVoltagep-type silicon+The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cellCurrent
16 Nanostructured Solar Cells Sunlight-“load”Voltage+CurrentMore interface area - More power!
17 ONE ROUTE: SELF ASSEMBLY Diblock CopolymersBlock “B”Block “A”PSPMMA~10 nmScale set by molecular sizeOrdered Phases10% A30% A50% A70% A90% A
18 Hydrogen Fuel Cell • Lightest fuel • Can make H2 from water Goals Improve proton membraneUse less catalystCHEAPER!
20 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many application PhysicsChemistryBiologyMaterials SciencePolymer ScienceElectrical EngineeringChemical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringMedicineAnd othersElectronicsMaterialsHealth/BiotechChemicalEnvironmentalEnergyAerospaceAutomotiveSecurityForest productsAnd others
21 My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever Re: Your futureMy Advice to Students:Pursue your interestsAsk questionsBe cleverDo!Thanks for visiting UMass and learning about nanotechnology!