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More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy

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Presentation on theme: "More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy"— Presentation transcript:

1 More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy
FUEL CELL CARS SOLAR CELLS ELECTRIC CARS Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, 2007

2 Prior application examples: Nanoelectronics

3 Example: Advancement of the iPod
10 GB 2001 20 GB 2002 40 GB 2004 80 GB 2006 160 GB 2007 Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!

4 Shrinking Magnets to the Nanoscale
Increases the amount of data stored on a fixed amount of “real estate” ! Now ~ 100 billion bits/in2, future target more than 1 trillion bits/in2 25 DVDs on a disk the size of a quarter, or all Library of Congress books on a 1 sq ft tile!

5 Computer Microprocessor "Heart of the computer" Does the "thinking"

6 Shrinking Transistors to the Nanoscale
Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip

7 Can similar advancements be made in energy technology?

8 History of Energy Consumption in the U.S.
quads year

9 U.S. Total Energy Flow, 2003 in quadrillion Btu (QBtu)
1 BTU ~ 1055 Joule The U.S. consumes about 100 QBtu annually.

10 Total US Energy Production and Consumption, 1980-2030
quadrillion Btu History Projections Net imports Consumption Production

11 The Earth’s Power System

12 Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.

13 Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - + + -
Made from single-crystal silicon wafers (conventionally) Sunlight wires - cross-sectional view “load” n-type silicon Voltage p-type silicon + + - Current The load can be a lamp, an electric motor, a CD player, a toaster, etc

14 Inside a Solar Cell light neutral Si atom + - electron hole
• The separated charge has higher potential energy than the neutral atom. • The electron (and hole) are now free to move independent of one another. light neutral Si atom + - electron hole

15 Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - - - - -- - - - + 0.5 Volt
p-n junction interface Sunlight - cross-sectional view “load” n-type silicon 0.5 Volt Voltage p-type silicon + The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cell Current

16 Nanostructured Solar Cells
Sunlight - “load” Voltage + Current More interface area - More power!

Diblock Copolymers Block “B” Block “A” PS PMMA ~10 nm Scale set by molecular size Ordered Phases 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A

18 Hydrogen Fuel Cell • Lightest fuel • Can make H2 from water Goals
Improve proton membrane Use less catalyst CHEAPER!

19 Nano-Battery

20 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many application
Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others

21 My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever
Re: Your future My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever Do! Thanks for visiting UMass and learning about nanotechnology!

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