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More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, 2007 www.citizenre.com.

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Presentation on theme: "More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, 2007 www.citizenre.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 More Real-World Applications of Nanotechnology: Energy Mark Tuominen, Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, UMass, December 1, SOLAR CELLS FUEL CELL CARS ELECTRIC CARS

2 Prior application examples: Nanoelectronics

3 10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 Example: Advancement of the iPod Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!

4 Shrinking Magnets to the Nanoscale Increases the amount of data stored on a fixed amount of real estate ! Now ~ 100 billion bits/in 2, future target more than 1 trillion bits/in 2 25 DVDs on a disk the size of a quarter, or all Library of Congress books on a 1 sq ft tile!

5 Computer Microprocessor "Heart of the computer" Does the "thinking"

6 Shrinking Transistors to the Nanoscale Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip intel.com

7 Can similar advancements be made in energy technology?

8 History of Energy Consumption in the U.S. quads year

9 U.S. Total Energy Flow, 2003 in quadrillion Btu (QBtu) 1 BTU ~ 1055 Joule The U.S. consumes about 100 QBtu annually.

10 Net imports Consumption Production ProjectionsHistory Total US Energy Production and Consumption, quadrillion Btu

11 The Earth s Power System The Sun

12 Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Solar Cells Konarka

13 Electric Solar Cells Made from single-crystal silicon wafers (conventionally) cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load + - Current The load can be a lamp, an electric motor, a CD player, a toaster, etc wires

14 Inside a Solar Cell light neutral Si atom +- electron hole The separated charge has higher potential energy than the neutral atom. The electron (and hole) are now free to move independent of one another.

15 Electric Solar Cells p-n junction interface cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load Current The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cell Volt

16 Nanostructured Solar Cells + - Sunlight Voltage load Current More interface area - More power!

17 ONE ROUTE: SELF ASSEMBLY Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size Diblock Copolymers

18 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Lightest fuel Can make H 2 from water Goals Improve proton membrane Use less catalyst CHEAPER!

19 Nano-Battery

20 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many application Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others

21 My Advice to Students: Pursue your interests Ask questions Be clever Do! Thanks for visiting UMass and learning about nanotechnology! Re: Your future


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