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Www.ecn.nl Electric cars: part of the problem or a solution for future grids? Frans Nieuwenhout, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN Sustainable.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.ecn.nl Electric cars: part of the problem or a solution for future grids? Frans Nieuwenhout, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric cars: part of the problem or a solution for future grids? Frans Nieuwenhout, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN Sustainable Development: a challenge for European research, Conference, Brussels, May 2009

2 2 Table of contents Introduction Electric cars and network infrastructure Active control of battery recharging Electric cars and the electricity system Some other issues Conclusion

3 3 Introduction Our future car: PHEV, EV or HFCV? ICE FC E-motor ICE: internal combustion engine; FC: fuel cell; HEV: hybrid-electric vehicle; PHEV: plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle; EV: electric vehicle; HFCV: hydrogen fuel cell vehicle EV HFCV Hydrogen (Green) electricity (bio) fuel Reduction of CO 2 and local emissions HEV PHEV

4 4 Introduction Contribution to the H 2 – electricity debate This presentation will not: Discuss which car-fuel combination is more sustainable Which type of car wins the competition But will discuss the consequences of the PHEV and EV introduction on the electricity infrastructure

5 5 Introduction Electricity system and network infrastructure Network infrastructure Electric system

6 6 Electric cars and the network infrastructure LV grid MV grid Distribution station

7 7 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Battery recharging Battery recharging options At home or a parking place Slow charging (16A): 1-3 kW (230 V) up to 9 kW (400V) Fast charging (40A): 9 kW (230 V) up to 27 kW (400V) At a filling station: fast charging and battery exchange Charging duration: EV 40 kWh battery; 200 km driving 160 Wh/km Slow: 6,7-40 hours Fast: 2,5-4,5 hours PHEV 9 kWh battery; 50 km driving 120 Wh/km Slow: 4,5-9 hours Fast: 0,5-1 hours Partial discharge (70-80%) due to lifetime considerations

8 8 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Available network capacity (I)

9 9 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Available network capacity (II)

10 10 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Available network capacity (III)

11 11 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Available network capacity (IV)

12 12 Electric cars and the network infrastructure Available network capacity (V)

13 13 Active control How to control recharging? (I) What should be known? State of charge, i.e. how empty is the battery? Charging power (kW), i.e. slow or fast charging The drivers preference, i.e. when should the battery be fully recharged (within 1 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours etc.)

14 14 Example: electric cars and the electricity system in Netherlands What happens with 1 million electric cars (II)? 1 million electric cars 20,000 km/year for each electric car 5 km/kWh 4000 kWh/year per car 1 million x 4000 x 1.1 = 4,400,000,000 kWh = 4.4 TWh Dutch electricity consumption in 2008: 123 TWh 1 million electric cars will increase Dutch electricity demand with 3.6%

15 15 Electric cars and the electricity system What happens with 1000,000 PHEVs or EVs? (II) 4.4 TWh / 365 = 12,000 MWh Day with highest system peak load in 2005 and 2006

16 16 Conventional: supply follows demand Extra peak and reserve capacity Electric cars and the electricity system Electric cars can help to keep the energy balance Conventional: supply follows demand Intelligent demand and supply management results in less required extra peak and reserve capacity Using flexibility from the demand side

17 17 Hours/day Days/year Price (Euro/MWh) APX Day-ahead electricity prices 2006 Electric cars and the electricity system Intelligent demand and supply management prijs Volume (MWh)

18 18 No network constrain Energy management using market price Constrained network Local market operated within network capacity limits Electric cars and the electricity system Combined optimization Comparable to local marginal pricing (LMP)

19 19 Electric cars and the electricity system Distributed storage PHEV Prius: storage capacity 9 kWh 2,2 million PHEV = 20 GWh Controlled charging of PHEVs and EVs and other demand response can take care of fluctuating electricity supply Tesla EV: storage capacity 60 kWh 0,33 million EV = 20 GWh Energy Island 20 GWh

20 20 Some other issues Recharging poles At home and in the street Cities try to stimulate EV with public recharging poles Who owns the recharging poles: network company or retailer?

21 21 Some other issues Vehicle to Grid (V2G) LV grid MV grid Distribution station Micro CHP Washing machine Electrical heat pump PV panels V2G: to stabilize the network in case of emergencies V2G: to stabilize the network in case of emergencies Alternative to V2G: Stationary battery

22 22 Conclusions Electricity system and network infrastructure can handle large numbers of electric cars only if controlled charging is applied Controlled charging of large numbers of electric cars can help to handle supply peaks caused by wind and solar energy Thank you!


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