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Readings Carolyn Jessop Escape, Broadway Books. (pp. 1-8, 72-106, 22-227 Rose McDermott (2011) Expert Report with regard to The Polygamy Reference, Court.

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Presentation on theme: "Readings Carolyn Jessop Escape, Broadway Books. (pp. 1-8, 72-106, 22-227 Rose McDermott (2011) Expert Report with regard to The Polygamy Reference, Court."— Presentation transcript:

1 Readings Carolyn Jessop Escape, Broadway Books. (pp. 1-8, , Rose McDermott (2011) Expert Report with regard to The Polygamy Reference, Court No: Supreme Court of British Columbia, S (pp. 1-25) Libby Copeland (2012). The problem with polygamy. Slate.com, January 30, 2012, pp. 1-2 (Comment on Henrich et al 2011). Polygyny and prostitution Guest lecturer: Rose McDermott

2 DEFINITIONS Monogamy 1 female, 1 male Polygamy Polygyny:1 male, multiple females SimultaneousPolygynous family FLDS; Schwarzenegger SequentialNew bond (remarriage) Newt Gingrich Polyandry:1 female, multiple males SimultaneousPolyandrous family Nepal-Tibet SequentialNew bond (remarriage) Elizabeth Taylor

3 Mating (breeding) system PolygynyMonogamy PolygynyMany mammals Absent Sociale.g. gorilla (bonding) system MonogamyMost birdsA few birds e.g. fairy-wrene.g. black vulture Some humans TWO USES OF POLYGYNY AND MONOGAMY

4 Superb fairy-wren Pair-bonded; pair-bond stable across years Females hold territories up to 8 years Often with male helpers, mostly females sons Extra-pair copulations 95% broods (n = 40) included extra-group fathers 76% offspring (n = 181) from extra-pair copulations Helpers (non-mating males) present dominant male helps less female mates with more extra-group males female produces sons that are chosen more as mates Mulder et al (1994) Proc Roy Soc B 255: The male is brighter than the female

5 Mulder et al (1994) Proc Roy Soc B 255: Superb fairy-wren Male mating polygyny Males repeatedly court extra-group females, but no immediate mating Courted females later choose to return to mate specific males

6 Human systems

7 Human breeding systems & subsistence Foraging Horticulture -> AgrarianIndustrial Family NuclearExtendedNuclear Residence VariesNeolocal Mostly patrilocal Self + kinSelf Spouse choice Lineage groups Society Mon (+ Pol)Monogamy Marriage Polygyny

8 Widespread: 83% societies (of 849 world-wide) More in high-status men;often sororal (35%) Concubines Manchu Emperor Bedouin Simultaneous polygyny AustralianCongo

9 Ibn Saud Founder and first King of Saudi Arabia, Unified warring tribes How many male descendants? (= Crown princes) Estimated at ! (from 150 wives)

10 Kipsigis, Kenya (Mulder) Polygynous 18 African countries Monogamous % wives % husbands 39%61% 39% van den Berghe 1981 Sex differences in marriage within polygyny Often: most women polygynous Most/all women married Usually most men monogamous Many men unmarried (trouble!)

11 Serial polygyny, USA Mueller & Mazur (2001) Behav Ecol Sociobiol 440 West Point graduates % --> 2nd marriage NO Children per wife Health SES YES # Marriages # Divorces Younger 2nd wife Height more RS. How??

12 Simultaneous polygyny USA Tom Green, Utah 7 wives 29 children 5 year jail-term Utah polygamists in prison, early 20th century

13 Socially imposed monogamy Industrial Societies Polygyny forbidden Associated with large complex societies, e.g. Ancient Rome

14 Foraging Societies Polygyny allowed but difficult if men provide meat (all men roughly equal in value) Ecologically imposed monogamy

15 Africa: mostly monogamous Successful men -> 2 wives Australia: mostly polygynous Successful men > 10 wives Efe Hadza Tiwi

16 Simultaneous polyandry Rare: 4 societies in 849 (0.5%) Polyandrous wedding, Nepal Found mostly briefly, in low-status men Often fraternal Always co-occurs with polygyny (high-status men are polygynous) Low-status man, Yanomamö One wife, plural husbands

17 Extreme male power tends to be used for reproduction Stratified societies: significant wealth at top Females compete to be attractive Top males buy as many females as possible Males want easily-guarded females M. Dickemann Ecology of hypergyny (females marrying up)

18 Tendencies of powerful men in all major civilizations Mesopotamia Egypt Aztec Inca India China Mated 100s or 1000s of women Chose virgins Monitored health, fertility Used wet nurses Secluded women in clothes and fortifications Guarded women with eunuchs or women Terrible punishments for adultery Easy access to women of less powerful men Bathsheba (Rembrandt) Betzig (1993) Collected women as spoils of war

19 Extent of polygyny parallelled a mans power China 600 AD Emperors: thousands of women Great princes: hundreds Nobility, generals, princes: ~30 Upper middle-class men: 6-12 Middle-class: 3-4 Betzig (1993) Concubines, Manchu dynasty Emperor: thousands of women Lords: > 700 Principal persons: 50 Leaders of vassal nations: 30 Leaders of 1000: 15 Heads of 100,000 provinces: 20 Governors of 100: 8 Petty chiefs of 50: 7 Chiefs over 10: 5 Chiefs over 5: 3 Rest: good luck! Inca 1500s AD

20 Powerful men in major civilizations Mesopotamia Egypt Aztec Inca India China Married monogamously Selected a single male heir Inbred with well-endowed women Imposed celibacy on many younger sons Imposed celibacy or suicide on widows Imposed celibacy on many daughters Suleiman - killed all sons except one, to ensure succession Betzig (1993)

21 As marriage historian Stephanie Coontz has pointed out, polygyny is less about sex than it is about power. (Copeland 2012) Male gets female labor Male gets respect from other males (via controlling access to daughters) But polygyny also systems for increasing reproduction No males in regal palace (Uganda) Eunuchs

22 Wealth & polygyny

23 Animal polygyny: high RS for males

24 Male Wealth Female RS Who should she marry? The polygyny threshold model First wife Second wife Poor Dude (as WIFE #1) Rich Dude (as WIFE #2) 4

25 Significance of the Polygyny Threshold Model Shows importance of male control of resources Explains polygyny as partly due to female interests Predicts polygyny if large inequality among males Predicts monogamy if NO inequality among males (female should always prefer unmated male) Predicts little reproductive inequality among females

26 WomenMen Total Children Born by age 60 Richer 50%Poorer 50% Irons 1979 Support for the Polygyny Threshold Model Turkmen, Iran, 1970s 1. Rich women do slightly better 2. Rich men do much better

27 Sexual selection in Kipsigis (western Kenya) (Borgerhoff-Mulder) Patrilocal residence Wealth varies

28 Kipsigis: rich men Large fields Divided for co-wives Cooperative male groups Large cattle herds Big wedding party

29 Bride-price negotiation Kipsigis: rich men More wives More children

30 Kipsigis: co-wives Mostly work individually Friends cooperateChildren help

31 Polygyny in Kipsigis: bad for poor co-wives # co-wives Rich husband Mid-wealth husband Poor husband RS Poor co-wives --> low RS Rich co-wives --> high RS

32

33 Females tend to benefit from a pair-bond Ache: father leaves (death or divorce) -> 50% increase in childs death rate Ache, Paraguay Hill & Hurtado 1995 Child survival


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