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Schoellhorn-AP Art History

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1 Schoellhorn-AP Art History
Early Medieval Art Schoellhorn-AP Art History

2 Why do we call it the… Dark Ages:
The light and learning of Rome had gone out for most people. Knowledge of Rome was way beyond people who remained. Life for most people was dark, scary….wars and plagues and barbarians, oh my!  Surviving took precedence over studying. The Middle Ages: Between the Fall of Rome and the Renaissance when Classical Styles returned. Medieval Times: Primitive Referring to the Middle Ages

3 Was it dark for everyone?
No, not if you were connected to the church. Think about it…. Rome has fallen, Christianity survived. Major power trip for the church. Reading the Bible is required for people in the clergy. Therefore, they had to be educated. Classical texts were stored, studied and recopied in monasteries, just not for everyone else. Classics were used in Scholasticism to understand/prove religion.

4 The Madness of the Migration Period
After Rome fell, land in Europe was up for grabs. Every barbarian group capable moved in (migrated) to get land for themselves. The Huns The Visigoths The Vandals (who sacked Rome) The Vikings Celts controlled Western Europe Germanic people

5 The Periods of Medieval Art
Hiberno-Saxon Art: 6th-8th centuries (British Isles) Viking Art: 8th-11th centuries (Scandinavia) Carolingian Art: 8th-9th centuries (France, Germany) Ottonian Art: 10th-11th centuries (Germany)


7 Combining Under Christianity
Christianity was the one thing to unite all the barbarian groups in Europe, making the church very powerful. Barbarian kings fought for the Pope and the church, who gave them the “Divine Right” to rule. Donations from kings made the Church very wealthy , allowing them to be patrons of the arts. Churches became very “blinged out” to show power and wealth.

8 Monasteries and Manuscripts
Christian Monasteries were the main places of study in the M.A’s. Scribes and painters worked to copy illuminated manuscripts of the Bible. Illuminated: “lit up” with pictures, decoration OR brought light/understanding to readers Exterior beauty “reflected” interior beauty (spirituality) of the words. Originality was not allowed, exact copies only. Demand was high for missionaries who took books to each newly converted place. Pictures helped when most people couldn’t read.

9 Creating Codices Codices (Codex): Manuscript books
Held up better over travel and use than scrolls. Made of vellum or parchment made from animals.

10 Sitting in a Scriptoria
Specific location in a monastery where monks/nuns wrote and illuminated manuscripts. Manuscripts were a team effort. Perfection and beauty were essential for the word of god. Painters Scribes Illustrators

11 The Art of Hibernia Hibernia: Ancient name for Ireland
Hiberno-Saxon: Art of the British Isles (Saxons = English, and Hibernians=Irish). Specialized in illuminated manuscripts using styles from a pagan past.

12 The Result of St. Patrick
Early 5th century: St. Patrick converts Ireland to Christianity. 486 AD: Rome falls, never conquered Ireland. Ireland remained free of Roman influence and art styles. Pope doesn’t even pay attention to Ireland until England conquers it in the 12th century. Developed a unique Christian style from pagan influences.

13 Making Monasteries The Irish made more monasteries than churches (no basilicas to copy off of) which became centers of learning in Ireland. Scriptoria copied the Bible, works of Apostles, even Classical texts. (gasp) Used these works on missionary trips to convert barbarians to Christianity.

14 Can’t Escape the Pagan Past
Pre-Christian Celtic polytheistic religions were focused on nature and animal spirits, all of nature was interconnected. Plants, animals, spirits combined in complex patterns.

15 What a Fabulous Phobia! Horror Vacui: Latin for a “fear of empty spaces”. Horror: Fear Vaccui: Vacuum, empty space Hibernians definitely feared empty space in art, crowding books with complex patterns to fill up the space.

16 The Book of Darrow, Gospel Book, 7th century
Strictly Irish Style

17 The Celtic Book of Kells, 800.C.E
4 symbols of the gospels on the cover: Ox, Eagle, Lion, Angel

18 Animosity in Animals Hibernian art uses a specific Animal Style, showing stylized animals in a specific manner or formation. Stylized: designed or created in a specific way (on purpose).

19 Chi Rho Iota Page, from the Book of Matthew (In the Book of Kells)
Ornamentation shows importance of what is being expressed First Gospel of the Bible in which Jesus is born. Chi Rho Iota: Greek abbreviation of Christ. Beauty and detail are used to show importance of the book, not a picture.

20 Remember: Gospel means “good news” Note: Nothing explicitly Christian about Irish Gospel manuscripts.

21 What Makes this Christian and Celtic?
Use of Greek name for Christ, Latin text inside the book. Words of Evangelists included on the intro pages. Celtic (Pagan): Interlocking patterns, horror vaccui, visual harmony. Figures appear, including animals: Mice on the back of cats. (Struggle between good and evil. Huge initials used for spirals and knot decorations.


23 Mixing Irish with English: The Lindisfarne Gospels, 700 C.E.
Hiberno-Saxon Gospel (English and Irish) Tempera paint on vellum (animal skin) Written by the Bishop of Lindisfarne. Used compasses and straight edges for precision in every detail.

24 Cover of the Lindisfarne Gospels

25 Revealing the Roman Side..
Each Gospel in the Lindisfarne Gospel starts with a portrait of the Evangelists writing their gospel. This came from a Roman tradition of including author portraits in the books: Remember, England HAD been run by the Romans. Saint Matthew Symbolic angel How do you see Byzantine influence here?

26 The other Evangelists

27 Scandinavia Sneaks In What countries make up Scandinavia?
Denmark Norway Sweden Never part of the Roman Empire Very strong mythological beliefs Similar to Celtic animal and nature worship Not much art survives but what does is small, personal, reflective of status, power.


29 The Violent Vikings Norse seamen, entered Europe in 8th century.
Viken: “People from the coves” Attacked, plundered, raided to all the way to North America Viking ships could sail 200 miles a day. Given a piece of land by the French that became Normandy (For the “northmen”) to make them back off.

30 The Serpents of the Sea Most norse or viking art comes from boats or things found on them. Nomadic, sea-faring people, even burials were on boats. Norsemen represented their ships as sea serpents. Used for boats burials as well as journeys. Chiefs were cremated on the ships. Even women could be buried on boats.

31 A Society of Ship Makers
The entire Viking Community worked to create ships. Crucial to Viking survival Women wove sails and tapestries Waterproofed by unwashed wool Men carved, built ships with elaborate details.

32 The Style of the Scandinavians
Strong use of animal style Animals shown in profile and very intimidating More use of applied art (art on functional items): jewelry, textiles, purses etc. Portable objects brought to Europe through trade, conquest. These were boat people, they traveled a lot. Art was used to decorate things they traded or took along on trips.


34 The Sutton Hoo Burial Ship
Located shortly before World War II (1939) Boat was a grave monument for an Anglo-Saxon King, found in a Burial mound in Suffolk, England. Parallel’s burial practices described in epics like Beowulf. Evidence of offerings on board for king to take into his after life. Coins, jewels, silver items

35 The Sutton Hoo Burial Purse
Cloissone Purse found in the Sutton Hoo Ship Ancient art of decorating metal items with melted glass or enamel. (mosaic meets stained glass) Coins found inside purse helped date the Sutton Hoo burial ship. Portable, decorative art Interlacing designs mixed with stylized animals (medieval) Demonstrates wealth, power of the king buried on the ship. Heroes conquering horrible monsters at sea.


37 The Oseberg Ship Burial
75 foot ship, discovered in Oseberg Norway CE Paddled by oars and sails Built for travel, not open voyages. Used to bury to women (queen and possibly a servant) Looted of all jewelry, but still showed wealth Dogs, ox and horses sacrificed with the women.


39 The Sea and the Serpent

40 Ugly Animals Viking animals are… Stylized to be intimidating
Ugly, grotesque Bulging eyes Snarling, large teeth Sharp Claws Nostrils flared Meant to be scary, intimidating Animal form + Interlacing pattern = medieval . Animal Head Post from the Oseberg Ship.


42 The Germans Found France
486 AD: A German Barbarian group called the Franks invade central Europe. Clovis: First King of the Franks Converts to Christianity Creates the Frankish (French)empire, spreading Chrstianity. Starts the Merovingian dynasty *Fun fact: Merovingians had long blonde hair and believed they descended from the blood line of Jesus the person.

43 The Merovingian Mayors
To protect borders of the empire, Merovingian kings placed mayors throughout the empire. Charles Martel (aka the Hammer) of the Carolingian House was the Mayor between Spain and France. Stopped Muslim invasion of Europe at the Battle of Tours.

44 Peppin Presses the Issue
Charles Martel’s son was Peppin the Short.  Wanted to be King of the Franks Defeated the Lombards in Northern Italy for the Pope. Crowned new king of the Carolingian Dynasty by the Pope, establishing concept of Divine Right. (Frankish kings rule by permission from God)

45 A Short Guy with a Tall Son
Peppin the Short’s son was named Charles Later named Charlemagne (A.K.A. Charles Magnus, Charles le Magne, Charles the Great). STRONGLY believed in Divine Right. Devout Christian, strongly supported the Pope. Goal: “To re-establish the authority of the city of Rome under his care and his influence.” To gain more power, gain more land, make more Christians. Created a Christian empire by the “Cross and the Sword”, staging mass baptisms wherever he conquered.

46 Charlemagne’s Capitol
Charlemagne’s Empire Charlemagne’s Capitol

47 Holy Roman Emperor! MENTAL MARKER:
800 AD: The Pope granted a title to Charlemagne on Christmas Day in St. Peter’s Basilica (to show he still called the shots in Christian Europe and to establish Charlemagne as his protector. Holy: Christian successor to Constantine, first Christian emperor. Roman: Old Roman Empire Emperor: Charlemagne expanded outside of France.

48 The Revival of Rome If Charlemagne was going to recreate a new Rome, he needed all people to be educated and united under common beliefs. Ordered Bibles to be written identically in Latin, therefore his people needed to learn Latin (also the language of the Church). Where do you learn Latin? From Classics of Rome! This began a revival of studying Greek and Roman culture, including art and architecture.

49 How does this sculpture show Roman Roots?

50 Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler, 9th Century The Return of Imperial Imagery
9 ½ inches tall, bronze Charlemagne or his grandson, Charles the Bald Equestrian figure inspired by Roman Style. Overly large so HE is focus, not the horse. like Marcus Aurelius statue, it was believed to be Constantine Creative appropriation (making it ones own) rather than strictly copying Roman style. Holds the world (orb) in his hands, like Rome.

51 An Imperial Palace An emperor needs an impressive palace.
Charlemagne’s palace was at his imperial capital in Aachen, Germany. Combined renewed Roman, Christian and Northern styles. Built in hot springs and forests for hunting and swimming. Huge audience hall, chapel and courtroom. Schools, areas for family and advisors.

52 Today it’s called Aix-la-Chapelle

53 Remind You of Rome or Ravenna?
To copy the Romans, Charlemagne’s architects drew influence from buildings in Ravenna and Rome. Used the Basilica model like St. Peter’s in Rome which became the standard for Medieval Churches in Europe. Added Westworks: Centralized entrance flanked by two large towers. Westworks: The Two towers in front of a chapel. KEY Carolingian identifier.

54 The Palatine (Palace) Chapel at Aachen
Designed by Odo of Metz Private worship place for Charlemagne Upper story throne room with massive throne for Charlemagne to watch mass. Modeled after San Vitale which Charlemagne adored after traveling the empire (Also as passive aggressive competition with the Byzantine empire) Westwork entrance Porphyry columns on inside. Designed to show more strength than beauty (Which will continue in the Middle Ages).

55 Floor Plan Palatine Chapel: Is it Central or Axial? 

56 What looks Roman here?


58 Other Parts of the Palatine Chapel
Octagon Shape (like San Vitale) Ambulatory Clerestory of windows under Octagon Dome. Multicolored stone = Byzantine influence Corinthian columns taken from Rome and Ravenna.


60 Making More Out of Monasteries
Charlemagne was determined to spread Christianity. Believed that for people to understand Christianity and be peaceful, all must be educated. Monasteries were created for worship and creating books, teaching. Became self sufficient communities that were protected and provided everything monks needed (so they could work non-stop)

61 The Benedictine Order During the time of Charlemagne, the Benedictine Order was the standard for monasteries. St. Benedict believed that worldly exposure and too much free time corrupted church members. Designed an order of monasteries where monks, under an Abbott, would spend each hour in useful work, manual labor and reading. (Made manual labor a positive thing). During the Carolingian Renaissance, they also used time to read and write books, keeping the classics alive in self contained communities.

62 The St. Gall Plan Developed under direction of Charlemagne
Became standard plan for Medieval Monasteries. The Church was the center of the plan. Separated monks from laity.

63 Church in Basilica style
West Works!

64 The Big Deal with Books Charlemagne insisted Christianity and learning be spread so, books were essential. Religious texts were copied identically without errors, standardized script so everyone learned the same thing. Scribes in monasteries revived Classical books, ideas under Charlemagne.

65 The Illuminated Gospels
Carolingian Gospels show a return to more realistic, non abstract style of Romans. Less fear of “idol worship”, figures appear more real. Even creativity was allowed leading to different variations of illustrations. Text had to be identical, pictures did not.

66 Coronation Gospels, 9th century
Comparing the Gospels Coronation Gospels, 9th century Ebbo Gospels, 9th Century

67 Utrecht Psalter, C.E. Most people in the Middle Ages couldn’t read. Pictures began to be used to tells stories literally. Psalter: Book of Psalms of the Bible Interprets metaphors of the Psalms literally, very difficult to do. Words are acted out, like Charades with energy, animation, realism.

68 The Lindau Gospels Carolingian art did take some influences from medieval, non-Christian works. Many kings liked to show wealth through metal work, jewels, etc. Gold cover of the Lindau gospels Pearls, jewels, show wealth, power of the church and the empire. Energy, movement, youthful classicism of Christ = Classical influence.

69 All Done After Verdun Charlemagne named his son, Louis the Pious as his successor, not a good ruler. Louis divided Charlemagne’s empire into three parts with the Treaty of Verdun among his sons. Charles the Bald Lothair Louis the German Fighting over land ended the reforms started by Charlemagne, forcing Europe back into the Dark Ages as people worried more about fighting than thinking.

70 So Long, Louis Louis the German lands (today Germany and Austria) were defeated by the Saxons in 936 AD. First 3 Saxon rulers were named Otto, leading to Ottonian Dynasty. Kicked out Vikings and Hungarians. Took over Northern Italy Reconstructed some of Charlemagne’s empire Became the new Holy Roman Emperors.

71 Ideas of the Ottonians Strong belief in church and state, since Holy Roman Emperor was so close to the Pope. Very strong religious beliefs. Borrowed art and architecture from Roman, Early Christian and Carolingian styles. Also influenced by Byzantines (Otto II married a Byzantine princess).

72 Carrying on the Carolingians
Architecture was the main thing to remain from Carolingian times. Large scale basilicas with Westworks continued.

73 Fire Failures Most Ottonian churches burned down from using timber roofs. Really only one remains. Abbey Church of Saint Michael’s remains after being destroyed and rebuilt in WWII (ooops). Shows evidence of Roman basilica style.

74 Abbey Church of Saint Michael’s, 1001-1033, Germany

75 The Bronze Bishop Bishop Bernward gained fame during the reign of the last Ottonian rulers. Excellent gold and metal worker. Commissioned bronze doors for St. Michaels in Germany Old Testament on the Left, New on the Right Man falls, man rises through Jesus Each piece cast separately. Most ambitious bronze project since Antiquity (the time of Rome).

76 Bishop Bernward Doors, c 1015, Bronze, St
Bishop Bernward Doors, c 1015, Bronze, St. Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany

77 Look Familiar? Bernward also created a bronze column with seven bands of relief, telling the story of Jesus life in 24 scenes. What is not on the column is on the doors. Roman monument provided inspiration for Ottonian artists. Can you guess which one?

78 Monumental Sculpture: Back in a Big Way
From AD, Ottonian’s led the way in artistic developments and a revival of large scale sculpture. Created a new way to show religious faith. Wanted people to develop a “real” personal relationship with Jesus, not just being “saved” through baptism and communion. How do you do this through art?

79 The Gero Crucifix, 970 CE Carved wood and painted with gold
Monumental in size to make Jesus seem “real” to the viewer (actually 6’2”)! Commissioned by Archbishop Gero of Cologne for a cathedral, also a reliquary Shows Jesus as a human suffering for the first time ever, not as triumphant hero.Pain is the focus. Makes the viewer feel human feelings towards Jesus (pity, awe) Heavy body, tired face, you almost feel pain in the shoulders, sagging body, blood. Shows Byzantine influence (Remember, Otto II married a Byzantine girl) but is much more real, less gentle. Bearded Christ = suffering Christ.

80 Remember: During the migration period, most art was small scale, portable and often personal. Carolingians and Ottonians will return permanency, large scale of Roman art/architecture. Because of Charlemagne, Christianity and the Classics were kept alive in the middle ages.

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