Presentation on theme: "Schoellhorn-AP Art History"— Presentation transcript:
1Schoellhorn-AP Art History Early Medieval ArtSchoellhorn-AP Art History
2Why do we call it the… Dark Ages: The light and learning of Rome had gone out for most people. Knowledge of Rome was way beyond people who remained.Life for most people was dark, scary….wars and plagues and barbarians, oh my! Surviving took precedence over studying.The Middle Ages: Between the Fall of Rome and the Renaissance when Classical Styles returned.Medieval Times:PrimitiveReferring to the Middle Ages
3Was it dark for everyone? No, not if you were connected to the church.Think about it….Rome has fallen, Christianity survived. Major power trip for the church.Reading the Bible is required for people in the clergy. Therefore, they had to be educated.Classical texts were stored, studied and recopied in monasteries, just not for everyone else.Classics were used in Scholasticism to understand/prove religion.
4The Madness of the Migration Period After Rome fell, land in Europe was up for grabs.Every barbarian group capable moved in (migrated) to get land for themselves.The HunsThe VisigothsThe Vandals (who sacked Rome)The VikingsCelts controlled Western EuropeGermanic people
5The Periods of Medieval Art Hiberno-Saxon Art: 6th-8th centuries (British Isles)Viking Art: 8th-11th centuries (Scandinavia)Carolingian Art: 8th-9th centuries (France, Germany)Ottonian Art: 10th-11th centuries (Germany)
7Combining Under Christianity Christianity was the one thing to unite all the barbarian groups in Europe, making the church very powerful.Barbarian kings fought for the Pope and the church, who gave them the “Divine Right” to rule.Donations from kings made the Church very wealthy , allowing them to be patrons of the arts.Churches became very “blinged out” to show power and wealth.
8Monasteries and Manuscripts Christian Monasteries were the main places of study in the M.A’s.Scribes and painters worked to copy illuminated manuscripts of the Bible.Illuminated: “lit up” with pictures, decorationOR brought light/understanding to readersExterior beauty “reflected” interior beauty (spirituality) of the words.Originality was not allowed, exact copies only.Demand was high for missionaries who took books to each newly converted place.Pictures helped when most people couldn’t read.
9Creating Codices Codices (Codex): Manuscript books Held up better over travel and use than scrolls.Made of vellum or parchment made from animals.
10Sitting in a Scriptoria Specific location in a monastery where monks/nuns wrote and illuminated manuscripts.Manuscripts were a team effort.Perfection and beauty were essential for the word of god.PaintersScribesIllustrators
11The Art of Hibernia Hibernia: Ancient name for Ireland Hiberno-Saxon: Art of the British Isles (Saxons = English, and Hibernians=Irish).Specialized in illuminated manuscripts using styles from a pagan past.
12The Result of St. Patrick Early 5th century: St. Patrick converts Ireland to Christianity.486 AD: Rome falls, never conquered Ireland.Ireland remained free of Roman influence and art styles.Pope doesn’t even pay attention to Ireland until England conquers it in the 12th century.Developed a unique Christian style from pagan influences.
13Making MonasteriesThe Irish made more monasteries than churches (no basilicas to copy off of) which became centers of learning in Ireland.Scriptoria copied the Bible, works of Apostles, even Classical texts. (gasp)Used these works on missionary trips to convert barbarians to Christianity.
14Can’t Escape the Pagan Past Pre-Christian Celtic polytheistic religions were focused on nature and animal spirits, all of nature was interconnected.Plants, animals, spirits combined in complex patterns.
15What a Fabulous Phobia!Horror Vacui: Latin for a “fear of empty spaces”.Horror: FearVaccui: Vacuum, empty spaceHibernians definitely feared empty space in art, crowding books with complex patterns to fill up the space.
16The Book of Darrow, Gospel Book, 7th century Strictly Irish Style
17The Celtic Book of Kells, 800.C.E 4 symbols of the gospels on the cover: Ox, Eagle, Lion, Angel
18Animosity in AnimalsHibernian art uses a specific Animal Style, showing stylized animals in a specific manner or formation.Stylized: designed or created in a specific way (on purpose).
19Chi Rho Iota Page, from the Book of Matthew (In the Book of Kells) Ornamentation shows importance of what is being expressedFirst Gospel of the Bible in which Jesus is born.Chi Rho Iota: Greek abbreviation of Christ.Beauty and detail are used to show importance of the book, not a picture.
20Remember: Gospel means “good news” Note: Nothing explicitly Christian about Irish Gospel manuscripts.
21What Makes this Christian and Celtic? Use of Greek name for Christ, Latin text inside the book.Words of Evangelists included on the intro pages.Celtic (Pagan):Interlocking patterns, horror vaccui, visual harmony.Figures appear, including animals: Mice on the back of cats. (Struggle between good and evil.Huge initials used for spirals and knot decorations.
23Mixing Irish with English: The Lindisfarne Gospels, 700 C.E. Hiberno-Saxon Gospel (English and Irish)Tempera paint on vellum (animal skin)Written by the Bishop of Lindisfarne.Used compasses and straight edges for precision in every detail.
25Revealing the Roman Side.. Each Gospel in the Lindisfarne Gospel starts with a portrait of the Evangelists writing their gospel.This came from a Roman tradition of including author portraits in the books:Remember, England HAD been run by the Romans.Saint MatthewSymbolic angelHow do you see Byzantine influence here?
27Scandinavia Sneaks In What countries make up Scandinavia? DenmarkNorwaySwedenNever part of the Roman EmpireVery strong mythological beliefsSimilar to Celtic animal and nature worshipNot much art survives but what does is small, personal, reflective of status, power.
29The Violent Vikings Norse seamen, entered Europe in 8th century. Viken: “People from the coves”Attacked, plundered, raided to all the way to North AmericaViking ships could sail 200 miles a day.Given a piece of land by the French that became Normandy (For the “northmen”) to make them back off.
30The Serpents of the SeaMost norse or viking art comes from boats or things found on them.Nomadic, sea-faring people, even burials were on boats.Norsemen represented their ships as sea serpents.Used for boats burials as well as journeys.Chiefs were cremated on the ships.Even women could be buried on boats.
31A Society of Ship Makers The entire Viking Community worked to create ships.Crucial to Viking survivalWomen wove sails and tapestriesWaterproofed by unwashed woolMen carved, built ships with elaborate details.
32The Style of the Scandinavians Strong use of animal styleAnimals shown in profile and very intimidatingMore use of applied art (art on functional items): jewelry, textiles, purses etc.Portable objects brought to Europe through trade, conquest.These were boat people, they traveled a lot. Art was used to decorate things they traded or took along on trips.
34The Sutton Hoo Burial Ship Located shortly before World War II (1939)Boat was a grave monument for an Anglo-Saxon King, found in a Burial mound in Suffolk, England.Parallel’s burial practices described in epics like Beowulf.Evidence of offerings on board for king to take into his after life.Coins, jewels, silver items
35The Sutton Hoo Burial Purse Cloissone Purse found in the Sutton Hoo ShipAncient art of decorating metal items with melted glass or enamel. (mosaic meets stained glass)Coins found inside purse helped date the Sutton Hoo burial ship.Portable, decorative artInterlacing designs mixed with stylized animals (medieval)Demonstrates wealth, power of the king buried on the ship.Heroes conquering horrible monsters at sea.
37The Oseberg Ship Burial 75 foot ship, discovered in Oseberg NorwayCEPaddled by oars and sailsBuilt for travel, not open voyages.Used to bury to women (queen and possibly a servant)Looted of all jewelry, but still showed wealthDogs, ox and horses sacrificed with the women.
40Ugly Animals Viking animals are… Stylized to be intimidating Ugly, grotesqueBulging eyesSnarling, large teethSharp ClawsNostrils flaredMeant to be scary, intimidatingAnimal form + Interlacing pattern = medieval .Animal Head Post from the Oseberg Ship.
42The Germans Found France 486 AD: A German Barbarian group called the Franks invade central Europe.Clovis: First King of the FranksConverts to ChristianityCreates the Frankish (French)empire, spreading Chrstianity.Starts the Merovingian dynasty*Fun fact: Merovingians had long blonde hair and believed they descended from the blood line of Jesus the person.
43The Merovingian Mayors To protect borders of the empire, Merovingian kings placed mayors throughout the empire.Charles Martel (aka the Hammer) of the Carolingian House was the Mayor between Spain and France.Stopped Muslim invasion of Europe at the Battle of Tours.
44Peppin Presses the Issue Charles Martel’s son was Peppin the Short. Wanted to be King of the FranksDefeated the Lombards in Northern Italy for the Pope.Crowned new king of the Carolingian Dynasty by the Pope, establishing concept of Divine Right. (Frankish kings rule by permission from God)
45A Short Guy with a Tall Son Peppin the Short’s son was named CharlesLater named Charlemagne (A.K.A. Charles Magnus, Charles le Magne, Charles the Great).STRONGLY believed in Divine Right.Devout Christian, strongly supported the Pope.Goal: “To re-establish the authority of the city of Rome under his care and his influence.”To gain more power, gain more land, make more Christians.Created a Christian empire by the “Cross and the Sword”, staging mass baptisms wherever he conquered.
47Holy Roman Emperor! MENTAL MARKER: 800 AD: The Pope granted a title to Charlemagne on Christmas Day in St. Peter’s Basilica (to show he still called the shots in Christian Europe and to establish Charlemagne as his protector.Holy: Christian successor to Constantine, first Christian emperor.Roman: Old Roman EmpireEmperor: Charlemagne expanded outside of France.
48The Revival of RomeIf Charlemagne was going to recreate a new Rome, he needed all people to be educated and united under common beliefs.Ordered Bibles to be written identically in Latin, therefore his people needed to learn Latin (also the language of the Church).Where do you learn Latin? From Classics of Rome!This began a revival of studying Greek and Roman culture, including art and architecture.
50Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler, 9th Century The Return of Imperial Imagery 9 ½ inches tall, bronzeCharlemagne or his grandson, Charles the BaldEquestrian figure inspired by Roman Style.Overly large so HE is focus, not the horse.like Marcus Aurelius statue, it was believed to be ConstantineCreative appropriation (making it ones own) rather than strictly copying Roman style.Holds the world (orb) in his hands, like Rome.
51An Imperial Palace An emperor needs an impressive palace. Charlemagne’s palace was at his imperial capital in Aachen, Germany.Combined renewed Roman, Christian and Northern styles.Built in hot springs and forests for hunting and swimming.Huge audience hall, chapel and courtroom.Schools, areas for family and advisors.
53Remind You of Rome or Ravenna? To copy the Romans, Charlemagne’s architects drew influence from buildings in Ravenna and Rome.Used the Basilica model like St. Peter’s in Rome which became the standard for Medieval Churches in Europe.Added Westworks: Centralized entrance flanked by two large towers.Westworks: The Two towers in front of a chapel. KEY Carolingian identifier.
54The Palatine (Palace) Chapel at Aachen Designed by Odo of MetzPrivate worship place for CharlemagneUpper story throne room with massive throne for Charlemagne to watch mass.Modeled after San Vitale which Charlemagne adored after traveling the empire (Also as passive aggressive competition with the Byzantine empire)Westwork entrancePorphyry columns on inside.Designed to show more strength than beauty (Which will continue in the Middle Ages).
55Floor Plan Palatine Chapel: Is it Central or Axial?
58Other Parts of the Palatine Chapel Octagon Shape (like San Vitale)AmbulatoryClerestory of windows under Octagon Dome.Multicolored stone = Byzantine influenceCorinthian columns taken from Rome and Ravenna.
60Making More Out of Monasteries Charlemagne was determined to spread Christianity.Believed that for people to understand Christianity and be peaceful, all must be educated.Monasteries were created for worship and creating books, teaching.Became self sufficient communities that were protected and provided everything monks needed (so they could work non-stop)
61The Benedictine OrderDuring the time of Charlemagne, the Benedictine Order was the standard for monasteries.St. Benedict believed that worldly exposure and too much free time corrupted church members.Designed an order of monasteries where monks, under an Abbott, would spend each hour in useful work, manual labor and reading. (Made manual labor a positive thing).During the Carolingian Renaissance, they also used time to read and write books, keeping the classics alive in self contained communities.
62The St. Gall Plan Developed under direction of Charlemagne Became standard plan for Medieval Monasteries.The Church was the center of the plan.Separated monks from laity.
64The Big Deal with BooksCharlemagne insisted Christianity and learning be spread so, books were essential.Religious texts were copied identically without errors, standardized script so everyone learned the same thing.Scribes in monasteries revived Classical books, ideas under Charlemagne.
65The Illuminated Gospels Carolingian Gospels show a return to more realistic, non abstract style of Romans.Less fear of “idol worship”, figures appear more real.Even creativity was allowed leading to different variations of illustrations.Text had to be identical, pictures did not.
66Coronation Gospels, 9th century Comparing the GospelsCoronation Gospels, 9th centuryEbbo Gospels,9th Century
67Utrecht Psalter, C.E.Most people in the Middle Ages couldn’t read. Pictures began to be used to tells stories literally.Psalter: Book of Psalms of the BibleInterprets metaphors of the Psalms literally, very difficult to do.Words are acted out, like Charades with energy, animation, realism.
68The Lindau GospelsCarolingian art did take some influences from medieval, non-Christian works.Many kings liked to show wealth through metal work, jewels, etc.Gold cover of the Lindau gospelsPearls, jewels, show wealth, power of the church and the empire.Energy, movement, youthful classicism of Christ = Classical influence.
69All Done After VerdunCharlemagne named his son, Louis the Pious as his successor, not a good ruler.Louis divided Charlemagne’s empire into three parts with the Treaty of Verdun among his sons.Charles the BaldLothairLouis the GermanFighting over land ended the reforms started by Charlemagne, forcing Europe back into the Dark Ages as people worried more about fighting than thinking.
70So Long, LouisLouis the German lands (today Germany and Austria) were defeated by the Saxons in 936 AD.First 3 Saxon rulers were named Otto, leading to Ottonian Dynasty.Kicked out Vikings and Hungarians.Took over Northern ItalyReconstructed some of Charlemagne’s empireBecame the new Holy Roman Emperors.
71Ideas of the OttoniansStrong belief in church and state, since Holy Roman Emperor was so close to the Pope.Very strong religious beliefs.Borrowed art and architecture from Roman, Early Christian and Carolingian styles.Also influenced by Byzantines (Otto II married a Byzantine princess).
72Carrying on the Carolingians Architecture was the main thing to remain from Carolingian times.Large scale basilicas with Westworks continued.
73Fire FailuresMost Ottonian churches burned down from using timber roofs.Really only one remains.Abbey Church of Saint Michael’s remains after being destroyed and rebuilt in WWII (ooops).Shows evidence of Roman basilica style.
74Abbey Church of Saint Michael’s, 1001-1033, Germany
75The Bronze BishopBishop Bernward gained fame during the reign of the last Ottonian rulers.Excellent gold and metal worker.Commissioned bronze doors for St. Michaels in GermanyOld Testament on the Left, New on the RightMan falls, man rises through JesusEach piece cast separately.Most ambitious bronze project since Antiquity (the time of Rome).
76Bishop Bernward Doors, c 1015, Bronze, St Bishop Bernward Doors, c 1015, Bronze, St. Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany
77Look Familiar?Bernward also created a bronze column with seven bands of relief, telling the story of Jesus life in 24 scenes.What is not on the column is on the doors.Roman monument provided inspiration for Ottonian artists.Can you guess which one?
78Monumental Sculpture: Back in a Big Way From AD, Ottonian’s led the way in artistic developments and a revival of large scale sculpture.Created a new way to show religious faith.Wanted people to develop a “real” personal relationship with Jesus, not just being “saved” through baptism and communion.How do you do this through art?
79The Gero Crucifix, 970 CE Carved wood and painted with gold Monumental in size to make Jesus seem “real” to the viewer (actually 6’2”)!Commissioned by Archbishop Gero of Cologne for a cathedral, also a reliquaryShows Jesus as a human suffering for the first time ever, not as triumphant hero.Pain is the focus.Makes the viewer feel human feelings towards Jesus (pity, awe)Heavy body, tired face, you almost feel pain in the shoulders, sagging body, blood.Shows Byzantine influence (Remember, Otto II married a Byzantine girl) but is much more real, less gentle. Bearded Christ = suffering Christ.
80Remember:During the migration period, most art was small scale, portable and often personal.Carolingians and Ottonians will return permanency, large scale of Roman art/architecture.Because of Charlemagne, Christianity and the Classics were kept alive in the middle ages.