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Advanced IC Packaging A Technology Overview… July 2004 J. Park C. Moll.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced IC Packaging A Technology Overview… July 2004 J. Park C. Moll."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced IC Packaging A Technology Overview… July 2004 J. Park C. Moll

2 A Chip is Useless w/out a Package Delivers power to the Chip Transfers information into and out of the Chip to the PCB Draws heat away from the Chip Protects the Chip from outside elements

3 IC Package Types (Lead Frame) PQFP- Plastic Quad Flat Pack –Up to 304 pins (500 micron pitch) –Inexpensive (~ a penny per pin) –Hermetic (Good for Harsh Environments) –Smaller ASICs and lower performance, lower pin count Microprocessors. TSOP- Thin Small Outline Package (TQFP- Thin QFP) –Very Low Profile –Common for Memory –Can Support Stacked Die –Can Support Flip chip PLCC, SOIC, MLF, DIP, SIP, etc- –Smaller Pin Count (4-84 pins) ALL Use mechanical based tools for design (AutoCAD) –NOT a Good Fit For APD –75% of ICs are in Lead Frame Packages

4 IC Package Types Continued… BGA- Ball Grid Array –PBGA (Plastic BGA) –Routable Laminate Substrate (Many Layers) –High Pin Count (Over 2000 pins) –ASICs, DSPs, PC Chipsets –Wirebond, TAB or Flip-Chip (Build-Up) attach –Build-Up Technology Requires Special Via Structures –Can support Via in Balls (uncommon)

5 BGA Continued… BGA- Ball Grid Array –CBGA (Ceramic BGA) –LTCC- Low Temp Co-Fired Ceramic –MLC- Multi Layer Ceramic –Good Thermal and Electrical properties –Usually Flip-Chip and SiP (MCM) –Supports Smaller Feature Sizes (Interconnect Density) –Supports Via in Ball –Support for Die Cavities –More Expensive, Reliability Questions

6 BGA Continued… BGA- Ball Grid Array –TBGA (Tape BGA) –1 Or 2 Layer Tape (Usually 1) –CSP- Chip Scale Packaging –Very Low Profile –Good Thermal and Electrical Performance (Short Vias) –Smaller Pin Count –Cavity Down

7 Die (Electrical) Attachment Wire Bond Tape (TAB) Flip-Chip (C4) Direct Connect (Bumpless Build-up) Chip On Board (COB) –FCOB (Flip-COB)

8 Wirebond Attachment Used in Lead Frame, PGA and BGA packaging Over 80% of Packages are Wirebonded Epoxy Glue to Attach Chip Typically Gold Wire –Also Copper, Aluminum –Wire length- typ. 1-5 mm –Wire diam.- typ µm –Inexpensive, Reliable

9 TAB (Tape Automated Bonding) Interconnect Patterned On Tape Stronger Lead Bonding Strength Supports Smaller On-chip Pin Size and Pitch Supports up to 850 Pins Better Electrical Performance than Wirebonds Area TAB for Flip-Chip

10 Flip-Chip (C4) Attachment What is Flip-Chip- –A method to electrically connect the die to the package carrier –The bond wire is replaced with a conductive bump placed directly on the die surface –Under-fill epoxy is used to secure the attachment and absorb stress –The chip is then flipped face down onto the package carrier using a re- flow process –Bump sizes range from microns in diameter –Also known as C4 (Controlled Collapsible Chip Connection) –Invented by IBM

11 Flip-Chip Continued Flip-Chip is NOT: –A Specific Substrate Material like LTCC or FR4 –A Specific Package like SOIC –A Specific Package Type like QFP, BGA or PGA

12 Advantages of Flip-Chip Reduced Signal Inductance –Shorter Interconnect Lengths Use Power More Efficiently –Power Directly at the Core Higher Interconnect Density –More Routable Area Smaller Package Size –Chip Scale Packaging (CSP) I/O Not Controlling Core Size –Area Array Placement –Possible Die Shrink

13 More about Flip-Chip Two methods of Bumping the Chip: –RDL- Re-Distribution Layer –Direct Bumping (UBM)

14 More Flip-Chip… Stud Bumping –Direct Gold Bump Placed on Die Bond Pad –Supports Tighter Pin Pitch High Pin Count ASICs and Microprocessors Typical Package is CBGA or TBGA (> 600 pins) Tape Carrier Package Used for < 600 pins

15 Flip-Chip…The Build-Up Process Based on High Density, Micro Via Organic Substrate –Also Referred To As Sequential Build-up –Requires Flip-Chip Escape Route Patterns –Typical Package Assembly Based on a 2layer Core and Build-Up From Each Side of Core –i.e. 3/2/3 process equals 3 build-up layers from each core side Build-up is Less Expensive Than LTCC. However, LTCC Exhibits Better Die Shrink Support with Same Build-Up Arrangement (a 3/2/3 process) Die Cost (size) Drives Use of Flip-Chip, Build-Up Process 2layer core

16 Flip-Chip…The Build-Up Process Layer to Layer Connections Typically Use: –Micro-Vias of 100um or Less –Special Patterns (Stagger, Staircase, etc.) –Core Vias Larger Than Micro Vias –Lines and Spaces < 35um Use of Mesh Planes for Fabrication Yields –IBM Unique uvia Patterns Core via vs. uvia

17 CSP- Chip Scale Packaging Definition: A Package is Considered CSP when it is Less than 20% Larger than the Die. Usually Flip-Chip Attachment –Flex Tape and Wirebond also possible Common for Wireless Handsets and Handheld Electronics. Stacked die support (S-CSP- Stacked CSP) Laminate and Ceramic Substrates

18 3D Packaging- Stacked Die Definition: Packaging Technology with 2 or More DIE Stacked in a Single Package or Multiple Packages Stacked Together Supports –Wirebond Die Attach –Flip chip Die Attach –Hybrid- Combination of Flip-Chip and Wirebond Attach Packaging Applications –CSP (most common) –PBGA, BGA, TSOP, TQFP etc. Benefits of 3D Packaging –Smaller, Thinner and Lighter Packages –Reduced Packaging Costs and Components –Reduced System Level Cost for System in Package (SiP) vs System on Chip (SoC) approach –System Level Size Reduction Due to Smaller Footprints and Decrease Component Count (SiP) Common for Wireless Handsets, Handheld Electronics and Memory Intensive Requirements.

19 Hybrid (Thin & Thick Film) Definition: A Single Substrate with Monolithic and Film Elements Passive Circuit Elements Deposited on an Insulating Substrate Usually Ceramic Substrates –Alumina, Beryillia, Aluminum Nitride Conductors Usually Gold, Silver, Palladium and Platinum Unique Design Requirements: –Paste/Ink Resistors (Laser Trimmed to.1%) –Dielectric Crossovers –Wire Bonding Packaged in Sips and Dips (low pin count) Medical, Aerospace, Automotive

20 SiP- System In Package (MCM) Wireless (RF) Market is the Key Driver –Motorola, Philips, Conexant, etc LTCC is the Substrate of Choice –CBGA Package SiP is NOT SOC (System On Chip)

21 Advantages of SiP over SOC RF ICs Typically Take 3-5 Manufacturing PassesRF ICs Typically Take 3-5 Manufacturing Passes –Mask Sets Cost Up To One Million Dollars Each (130nm) –Total Cost of Up To 5 Million Dollars –6 Month Impact to Schedule SiP on LTCCSiP on LTCC –Total Cost Less Than 500K for 3-5 Manufacturing Passes –6 Week Impact to Schedule Mixed Technology SupportMixed Technology Support –CMOS, GaAs, SiGe all on One Substrate –Flexible Design Partitioning Bluetooth Standard PlatformBluetooth Standard Platform

22 Current RF Module Process Design Entry HDL Schematic Capture ADE Composer Schematic Capture Spectre (RF) Simulation Virtuoso IC Layout Assura Extraction/LVS APD 610 SiP/Module Layout IFF LEF/DEF Binary Pst Files ADS Schematic Capture IFF ADS RF Layout APSI 620 Module Level Analysis Ansoft HFSS 3D Extraction Ansoft Links Parasitics/S Parameters/Spice RFDE Library (models) ADS Sim Momentum 2D Planer Solver Cadence Agilent Ansoft GerberUnion

23 RF SiP Requirements Schematic Driven Buried Discrete Components –Mostly Inductors (Spiral) and Capacitors Parameterized Elements Component Level LVS

24 Current Trends 3D Packaging- Stacked Die Build-Up Substrates Flip-Chip –DCA- Direct Chip Attach (Bump-Less) SiP –LTCC, Bluetooth Standard Green Manufacturing –Removing Lead (Pb) –New Materials (tin, silver, copper) for Die Attach, plating, solder balls Standard Packages –Custom Packages Too Expensive

25 Whos Who in IC Packaging In 2004 STATS merged with ChipPAC to become #3

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