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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior Section 2: Social Movements

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives: Contrast the various types of collectivities and describe the explanations for collective behavior that have been proposed. Contrast the various types of collectivities and describe the explanations for collective behavior that have been proposed. Identify the preconditions necessary for collective behavior to occur and explain how they build on one another. Identify the preconditions necessary for collective behavior to occur and explain how they build on one another. Section 1: Collective Behavior

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Types of Collectivities Crowds – temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interact Crowds – temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interact Mobs and Riots – a mob is an emotionally charge collectivity whose members are united by a specific destructive or violent goal; a riot is a collection of people who erupt into generalized destructive behavior, the result of which is social disorder. Mobs and Riots – a mob is an emotionally charge collectivity whose members are united by a specific destructive or violent goal; a riot is a collection of people who erupt into generalized destructive behavior, the result of which is social disorder. Section 1: Collective Behavior

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Types of Collectivities Panics – a spontaneous and uncoordinated group action to escape some perceived threat Panics – a spontaneous and uncoordinated group action to escape some perceived threat Mass Hysteria – an unfounded anxiety shared by people who can be scattered over a wide geographic area Mass Hysteria – an unfounded anxiety shared by people who can be scattered over a wide geographic area Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Types of Collectivities Fashion and Fads – fashion refers to enthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behavior; a fad is an unconventional object, action, or idea that a large number of people are attached to for a very short period of time Fashion and Fads – fashion refers to enthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behavior; a fad is an unconventional object, action, or idea that a large number of people are attached to for a very short period of time Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Types of Collectivities Rumors and Urban Legends – a rumor is an unverified piece of information that is spread rapidly from one person to another; an urban legend is a story that teaches a lesson and seems realistic but is untrue Rumors and Urban Legends – a rumor is an unverified piece of information that is spread rapidly from one person to another; an urban legend is a story that teaches a lesson and seems realistic but is untrue Public Opinion – refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issue Public Opinion – refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issue Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Explanations for Collective Behavior Contagion Theory – the hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up their individuality to the stronger pull of the group Contagion Theory – the hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up their individuality to the stronger pull of the group Emergent-Norm Theory – people in a crowd are often faced with a situation in which traditional norms of behavior do not apply Emergent-Norm Theory – people in a crowd are often faced with a situation in which traditional norms of behavior do not apply Value-Added Theory – explains crowd behavior as a process that moves from step to step Value-Added Theory – explains crowd behavior as a process that moves from step to step Section 1: Collective Behavior

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Structural Conduciveness – refers to the surrounding social structure that makes it possible for a particular type of collective behavior to occur Structural Conduciveness – refers to the surrounding social structure that makes it possible for a particular type of collective behavior to occur Structural Strain – refers to social conditions that put strain on people and thus encourage them to seek some collective means of relief Structural Strain – refers to social conditions that put strain on people and thus encourage them to seek some collective means of relief Section 1: Collective Behavior

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Growth and Spread of Generalized Belief – people identify the problem, form opinions about it, and share ways of dealing with it Growth and Spread of Generalized Belief – people identify the problem, form opinions about it, and share ways of dealing with it Precipitating Factors – refer to triggering mechanisms that set off the behavior Precipitating Factors – refer to triggering mechanisms that set off the behavior Social Control – a mechanism used to control or minimize a situation Social Control – a mechanism used to control or minimize a situation Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Objectives: Describe the types of social movements that exist and explain how they differ. Describe the types of social movements that exist and explain how they differ. Identify the stages present in the life cycle of social movements and describe ways in which the existence of social movements can be explained. Identify the stages present in the life cycle of social movements and describe ways in which the existence of social movements can be explained. Section 2: Social Movements

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Types of Social Movements Reactionary – try to prevent a type of social change and return society to a past way of being; often use fear and violence; example: Ku Klux Klan Reactionary – try to prevent a type of social change and return society to a past way of being; often use fear and violence; example: Ku Klux Klan Conservative – try to protect prevailing values from what are seen as threats to those values; examples: the religious right Conservative – try to protect prevailing values from what are seen as threats to those values; examples: the religious right Section 2: Social Movements

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Types of Social Movements Revisionary – try to improve some part of society through social change; usually use legal methods and focus on a single issue; example: womens suffrage movement Revisionary – try to improve some part of society through social change; usually use legal methods and focus on a single issue; example: womens suffrage movement Section 2: Social Movements (continued)

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Types of Social Movements Revolutionary – seek a total radical change or existing social structure, overthrow existing government and replace it with their own version; often involve violent or illegal methods; example: the American Revolution Revolutionary – seek a total radical change or existing social structure, overthrow existing government and replace it with their own version; often involve violent or illegal methods; example: the American Revolution Section 2: Social Movements (continued)

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Life Cycle of Social Movements Agitation – initial stirrings of a movement Agitation – initial stirrings of a movement Legitimation – movement viewed as more respectable Legitimation – movement viewed as more respectable Bureaucratization – structure of movement more formal Bureaucratization – structure of movement more formal Institutionalization – an established part of society Institutionalization – an established part of society Section 2: Social Movements

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Explaining Social Movements Relative Deprivation Theory – people join social movements because they feel deprived relative to other people or groups with whom they identify Relative Deprivation Theory – people join social movements because they feel deprived relative to other people or groups with whom they identify Resource-Mobilization Theory – not even the most ill-treated group with the most just cause will be able to bring about change without resources Resource-Mobilization Theory – not even the most ill-treated group with the most just cause will be able to bring about change without resources Section 2: Social Movements


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