Public opinion= refers to the collection of attitudes that members of a public have on a given issue. Propaganda= an organized and deliberate attempt to shape public opinion. ▪ Most effective way to influence the way that people think. ▪ Can be used negatively or positively.
Catagion theory= hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up individuality to the stronger pull of the group. Gustave LeBon Factors giving power to crowds: Individuals gain anonymity Spread of emotion is rapid and contagious Members are suggestible.
Emergent-Norm Theory= traditional norms do not apply; with no clear standards, individuals wait for a leader to emerge and instill norms. Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian
Value-added theory= 6 basic principles; these principles build upon one another. The more preconditions/principles that are present, the greater the likelihood of a collective behavior occurring. Each condition present beforehand adds value, or likelihood to the collective behavior. Neil Smelser
Goal of a social movement is to change society Reactionary movement= reverse current social trends. ▪ Re-emergence of the KKK in 1950s/1960s Conservative movement= protect society’s prevailing values from the threat of change. ▪ Religious movements– protecting traditional family values.
Revisionary movement= improve or revise some part of society. ▪ Women’s suffrage movement of 1900s. Revolutionary movement= total and radical change of existing social structure. ▪ American Revolution, Bolshevik Revolution, Castro’s revolution in Cuba
Four stages identified by Malcolm Spector and John Kitsuse (example w/labor movements) Agitation ▪ Belief that a problem exists (low pay, harsh working conditions) Legitimation ▪ There is support for this movement (labor unions receive recognition) Bureaucratization ▪ Ranked structure of authority (labor unions have increased number, elect leaders) Institutionalization ▪ Established part of society (labor unions now resist attempts to change their structure)
Relative Deprivation Theory People join because they feel deprived of what they feel they deserve. Seek to gain what they lack, but that others have. Resource-Mobilization Theory Organization and effective use of resources is necessary to have a social movement. Both theories can be applied to a social movement.
Think of a social movement that has shaped history– world or U.S. On a sheet of paper, clearly identify the four ‘life cycles’ of this movement. Possible examples: Civil Rights movement Women’s rights movement Religious movements Progressive movement Awareness movement