Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change
2Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 17.1 Collective Behavior Define collective behavior and explain its challenges to sociologists.Compare and contrast types of collectivity.Examine examples of mass behavior.17.2 Social MovementsIllustrate the various types of social movements.17.3 Stages of Social MovementsDescribe the stages of a social movement.
3Objectives (slide 2 of 2) 17.4 Social Movements in the United States Analyze key social movements in the United States.17.5 Theories of Social MovementsExplain the main theories of social movements.17.6 Social ChangeIllustrate theories of social change.
4Collective BehaviorCollective behavior: Behaviors involving a large number of individuals that are usually unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes even dangerousCollectivity: A large number of individuals whose minimal interaction occurs without the benefit of conventional normsLocalized collectivities emerge among people who share close physical proximity.Dispersed collectivities involve people who influence one another even though they are spread over a large area.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Define collective behavior and explain its challenges to sociologists.Collective behavior refers to behaviors involving a large number of individuals that are usually unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes even dangerous. Studying these unplanned social behaviors provides unique challenges to sociologists but also provides interesting opportunities to study important aspects of human behavior. Studying collective behavior poses significant difficulties for sociologists to study for several reasons. First, much collective behavior does not exist for long, especially when compared to more enduring social institutions such as the family. Second, collective behavior is diverse. It encompasses a wide range of possible behaviors. Often, the direct causes of these behaviors are difficult to see and even more difficult to study scientifically. Finally, collective behavior is highly variable. Despite these issues, sociologists have been able to learn a lot about collective behavior. All collective behavior involves the actions of a collectivity, a large number of individuals whose minimal interaction occurs without the benefit of conventional norms. Collectivities come in two general types.Localized collectivities are collectivities that emerge among people who share close physical proximity. An example of a localized collectivity wouldDispersed collectivities involve people who influence one another even though they are spread over a large area.
5How Collectivities Differ from Social Groups Members have only minimal interaction other individuals in the collectivity.No clear social boundaries.Characterized by the emergence of weak and often unconventional social norms that are insufficient to regulate the actions of individuals.Individual members have considerable interaction withone another.Members share a sense of identity.Characterized by strong norms and have the goal of regulating the behavior of members of the group.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Define collective behavior and explain its challenges to sociologists.It is important to understand how collectivities differ from social groups.First, unlike social groups in which individual members have considerable interaction with one another, members of collectivities have only minimal interaction other individuals in the collectivity. In fact, members of a collectivity need not even interact at all—such as when people follow a fashion or engage in a fad.Second, collectivities have no clear social boundaries. While members of a group share a sense of identity, members of a collectivity do not. For example, members of a political party constitute a social group because there is a shared sense of identity that accompanies membership in a political party. In contrast, people who like the same television show do not establish a strong sense of identity from that show. They would form a collectivity.Finally, collectivities are characterized by the emergence of weak and often unconventional social norms. Group norms are typically strong and have the goal of regulating the behavior of members of the group. In contrast, the weaker norms of collectivities are often insufficient to properly regulate the actions of individuals.
6Localized Collectivities Crowd: A temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one anotherTypes of crowds:CasualConventionalExpressiveActingProtestLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Compare and contrast types of collectivity.Examine examples of mass behavior.Localized collectivities are characterized by the close proximity of individuals. One of the main ways this occurs is through crowds. A crowd is a temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another. Planned crowds include people at a concert or sporting event. Unplanned crowds might emerge during a disaster or other event that occurs spontaneously.Crowds differ in their social dynamics depending on the kind of crowd and its origins. Sociologist Herbert Blumer (1969) identified four types of crowds.A casual crowd is defined as people who share the same proximity but interact very little.Conventional crowds are crowds that form from deliberate planning. In such cases, a clear set of norms dictates the behavior of the collectivity.An expressive crowd emerges from an event that has a strong emotional componentAn acting crowd is a collectivity that has a single purpose, usually fueled by strong emotions.Some researchers have added a new category to Blumer’s typology. Protest crowds are crowds that form specifically to hold demonstrations for political purposes.Crowds may change from one kind to another fairly easily. For example, when a conventional crowd forms, it may quickly become an expressive crowd, which may in turn into an acting crowd.
7Riots and MobsMob: A highly emotional crowd that pursues a destructive or violent goalRiot: An eruption of social activity that is highly emotional, undirected, and violentLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Compare and contrast types of collectivity.Examine examples of mass behavior.When crowds become violent or destructive, the result is a mob. A mob is defined as a highly emotional crowd that pursues a destructive or violent goal. Mobs often form spontaneously and are usually short lived, although they will tend to last longer if a clear leader emerges during the fray. A riot, by contrast, is an eruption of social activity that is highly emotional, undirected, and violent. It differs from a mob in that while a mob has a specific goal of being destructive, a riot has no clear goal. Many riots are the result of some perceived social injustice or in response to undesired social change.Riots are often exhilarating for those who participate in them and frightening for the victims. Riots give the participants—usually ordinary people—considerable power. Acting in a spontaneous situation with other people offers the perception of legitimation and protection from wrongdoing. Sometimes, however, riots can be a force for social change. Riots and mobs, therefore, can be both good and bad. They can cause unimaginable harm or significant social change. For this reason, riots and mobs are often feared by people who have a stake in keeping things the way they are. At the same time, mobs and riots are sometimes defended by individuals who seek to change society, especially when there is a perception that individuals are desperate or disenfranchised.
8Theories of Crowd Behavior Contagion theory argues that crowds have a hypnotic effect on their members, causing people to act in ways they would not ordinarily act.Convergence theories argue that crowd behavior comes from like-minded individuals.Emergent norm theory states that it is possible to observe patterns that help predict the behaviors of individuals within the collective.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Compare and contrast types of collectivity.There are several theories that attempt to account for the behavior of individuals in crowds.Contagion theory was developed by French sociologist Gustav LeBon in According to LeBon, crowds have an almost hypnotic effect on their members. In large groups, there is anonymity that makes people abandon reason and personal responsibility. Like a contagion spreading through a population, behaviors spread through the crowds, causing people toact in ways that they would not ordinarily act. The crowd assumes a life of its own, and people act within its wake.Convergence theories argues that crowd behavior comes from the people who join crowds, not the crowds themselves. In other words, the behavior of the crowds occurs from the convergence of many people who are all thinking alike.Ralph Turner and Lewis Killiam (1987) developed emergent norm theory as yet another way of explaining the emergence of crowd behavior. Emergent norm theory admits that predicting human social behavior is never perfect. However, in collectivities, it may be possible to observe patterns that help predict the behaviors of individuals within that collectivity. Emergent norm theory argues that individuals in crowds may have different motives or interests. However, their behavior may become consistent with the behavior of others as collective norms emerge. While these norms may be vague and changing, they do serve to guide the behavior of the people in the crowd and serve as a starting point for analysis of crowd behavior.
9Dispersed Collectivities: Rumors Rumors: Unconfirmed information that people spread, often by word-of-mouthCharacteristics of rumors:They occur in situations in which there are large degrees of uncertainty and in which facts are difficult to authenticate.They are unstable and change frequently.They are difficult to stop.Gossip: Rumors about the personal affairs of a personLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Examine examples of mass behavior.Collective behavior can occur among people who are dispersed over a wide geographic area Rumors. Rumors refer to unconfirmed information that people spread, often by word of mouth. While traditionally rumors spread through face-to-face communication, modern technologies have facilitated the spread of rumors, and now rumors spread faster and farther than ever before. Rumors have three main characteristics.First, rumors occur in situations in which there are large degrees of uncertainty and in which facts are difficult to authenticate.Second, rumors are unstable and change frequently. As rumors spread, they change to fit the preconceived notions of the people who are spreading them.Finally, rumors are difficult to stop. Rumors thrive in environments in which facts are difficult to determine. Because rumors spread quickly, they are difficult to intercept even when the facts are known.Gossip refers to rumors about the personal affairs of a person. While rumors tend to have broad social appeal, gossip typically has a much smaller audience that is limited to a small group of people. For this reason, rumors spread widely, but gossip tends to be localized. Gossip acts as a means of social control by encouraging the victim of gossip to adhere to social norms. Nicholson (2001) also argues that gossip functions as means by which individuals raise their own status. When an individual spreads gossip, it is usually denigrating to the victim, which lowers the victim’s social status relative to the person spreading the gossip. Additionally, the person spreading gossip may get an increase in status by being perceived by others as a social insider. At the same time, spreading too much gossip can backfire, as society may see theperson as a busybody.
10Propaganda and Public Opinion Public opinion: Widespread attitudes or beliefs about a particular issuePropaganda: Information that is given with the intention of influencing public opinion through:Facts or evidenceEmotionsAuthorityLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Compare and contrast types of collectivity.Although people sharing an opinion may be geographically dispersed, they may in fact engage in collective behavior because they share a common view on a particular issue. Although people who have similar opinions may never meet, they may still engage in similar, coordinated actions that center around their opinion. Sociologists use the term public opinion to refer to widespread attitudes or beliefs about a particular issue. While almost everybody has an opinion about major social issues, most people indicate that they do not have strong opinions about most issues. Not everyone’s opinions are given the same weight. The weight of opinions may vary by education, race, socioeconomic status, gender, or expertise in a particular area.Advocacy groups, politicians, and others may all try to influence public opinion. To do this, they often use propaganda, information that is given with the intention of shaping public opinion. This differs from information, which is designed to educate. Swaying opinions can be done in several ways. First, propaganda may appeal to facts or evidence in order to persuade people to change their opinions. It may also appeal to emotions. Finally, propaganda can appeal to religious or other authority as a means to convince people of the propagandist’s point of view.
11Fads and FashionsFashion: A social pattern that is adopted or followed by a large number of peopleConspicuous consumption: Spending money on things that advertise status and prestigeFad: A unique or unconventional social pattern that is adopted briefly and enthusiastically by members of a social group or societyLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Examine examples of mass behavior.Other dispersed collectivities are fashions and fads. A fashion is a social pattern that is adopted or followed by a large number of people. Fashions include taste in clothing, art, music, and other aspects of culture that may change rapidly in modern society. Fashions are used to distinguish groups of people from others. Traditionally, this distinction would usually be determined by social class, as the wealthy would seek to display their wealth through brightly colored, ostentatious clothing or furnishings. As the middle class developed and gained wealth, it mimicked the tastes of the wealthy, often buying objects not out of necessity but rather to increase their status. Social critic Thorsten Veblen called this phenomenon conspicuous consumption. Because individuals in the lower classes seek to mimic the fashion of the higher classes, fashion tends to move downward in the socioeconomic structure. As more and more people adopt the fashion, it gradually loses its appeal. This precipitates the wealthy to seek out new ways to distinguish themselves. Thus, fashion is constantly changing. On occasion, fashions remain relatively stable. In some cases, fashions even move from the lower socioeconomic status to the higher socioeconomic statuses.Sometimes, elements of fashions are embraced enthusiastically by members of a society. Often, these elements are unconventional or unique, which tends to contribute to their popularity. When a unique or unconventional social pattern is embraced briefly and enthusiastically by members of a social group or society, it is called a fad. Fads appear most often in high-income societies because individuals in high-income societies have the money to spend on nonessential items. Fads are different from fashions because fads catch on more quickly with the general population but also fade out more quickly. While many elements of fashion become long-lasting and even permanent features of society, fads rarely make a lasting impact.
12Other Collective Behaviors Panic and Mass HysteriaDisastersPanic: A form of collective behavior in which people react to a perceived threat in a frantic and irrational wayMoral panic (mass hysteria): A form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a perceived threatening event with an irrational fearDisaster: An event that causes extensive harm to people and propertyTypes of disasters:Natural disastersTechnological disastersIntentional disastersLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.1 Collective BehaviorLO: Compare and contrast types of collectivity.Examine examples of mass behavior.Panic is a form of collective behavior in which people react to a perceived threat in a frantic and irrational way. Relatedly, a moral panic is a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a perceived threatening event with an irrational fear. A moral panic is also called mass hysteria. Moral panics are often fueled by the mass media, which disseminate information very quickly.A disaster is an event that causes extensive harm to people and property. Generally, three kinds of disasters are recognized.Natural disasters include such incidents as floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados.Disasters also occur when humans fail to adequately regulate and control technology, resulting in a technological disaster.Finally, intentional disasters are disasters that are caused deliberately, with the intent to harm others. War, terrorist attacks, and genocide are all examples of intentional disasters.Disasters often happen suddenly and swiftly, though the effects can last for years. For this reason, among others, disasters are inherently social events. Aside from the direct harm that disasters can cause to the environment, they also damage human communities. Even after the immediate damage of a disaster is gone, the emotional and psychological scars maylinger. Some research shows that the type of disaster influences the way in which people recover from it. For example, recovery from natural disasters tends to be shorter than the recovery time from technological disasters or intentional disasters. This is because it is easier to understand disasters that occur naturally than intentionally at the hands of other humans.
13Social MovementsSocial movement: Any organized activity that encourages or discourages social changeThe cultural variety that accompanies industrial and postindustrial societies makes social conflict more likely.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.2 Social MovementsLO: Illustrate the various types of social movements.Social movements are one of the most important kinds of collective behavior. Sociologists define social movements as any organized activity that encourages or discourages social change. Social movements are important because they have lasting and significant effects on our society. In fact, C. Wright Mills (1959), who developed the idea of the sociological imagination, considered social movements an integral part of that development. Mills began with the assumption that how a person thinks sociologically is shaped by the social and historical structure that the person is in. Social movements shape the social structure by influencing the way in which we think about and experience issues in society. Social movements shape the social structure as they push social institutions to change.Historically, social movements are a relatively recent phenomenon. Preindustrial societies are strongly rooted in tradition, making social movements generally unnecessary and very rare. Conversely, the cultural variety that accompanies industrial and postindustrial societies makes social conflict more likely. The clash of norms that accompanies the proliferation of countercultures means that a wide range of public issues come into the public rhetoric.
14Types of Social Movements Alternative social movement: A social movement that seeks to change only very limited aspects of societyRedemptive social movement: A social movement that seeks radical change for a specific, targeted group of peopleReformative social movement: A social movement that targets a broad group of people but whose changes are limited in scopeRevolutionary social movement: A social movement that seeks radical change of an entire societyProgressive movements promote new social patternsReactionary movements oppose movements that seek changeLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.2 Social MovementsLO: Illustrate the various types of social movements.Each social movement is different, though they share similar patterns. Social movements may differ in the kinds of people they target or the kinds of changes that they advocate. Despite the wide variation among social movements, sociologists have been able to categorize them into four general types. All social movements are some threat to the status quo. Some social movements, however, are more threatening to the prevailing social order than others.Alternative social movements are usually the least threatening to the status quo. Alternative social movements seek to change only very limited aspects of society. The aim is to help certain people alter their lives.Redemptive social movements also target specific people or groups. However, as compared to alternative social movements, redemptive social movements seek radical change.Reformative social movements target everyone, but they change they seek is limited in scope. Usually, reformative social movements work within the law and the existing political system to affect their social change.Revolutionary social movements are the most radical and extreme type of social movements. Revolutionary social movements seek to transform entire societies. They reject existing social institutions as fundamentally flawed and propose radical alternatives to these existing institutions. Revolutionary social movements can be further subdivided into two types. Progressive movements promote new social patterns—they advocate for change. Reactionary movements oppose movements that seek change or try to return to previously existing ways of life.
15Why Do People Join Social Movements? Sociologists have identified four main reasons people join social movements:Personal advantagePrincipled commitmentSense of self-identityDesire to be part of a groupClaims making: The process of trying to convince people that the cause of a social movement is importantLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.2 Social MovementsLO: Illustrate the various types of social movements.Sociologists have identified four main reasons that people join movements. It is important to understand that these reasons may work singularly or in combination. People often join social movements for multiple reasons that are often connected.People may join social movements for personal advantage. Usually, this means material advantage, such as better wages or benefits.People may also join social movements because of principled commitment. Individuals sometimes have strong moral views and join social movements because they believe in the cause the movement is fighting for. Joining a social movement connects the person with others who share the same moral commitment.Developing a sense of group solidarity is important to a person’s sense of identity. By joining a social movement, an individual may feel like part of a group. This is often because movements connect people with similar principled commitments.Relatedly, people join social movements out of a desire to part of a group.Individuals sometimes join social movements without prompting. However, sometimes people need to be persuaded that the cause addressed by a social movement is important enough to join. Claims making is the process of trying to convince people that the cause of a social movement is so important that the person should join the movement. This is usually done by first convincing society that the cause is important and demands public attention. Claims making is often started by a select small group of people who have a strong commitment to a particular issue.
16Stages of Social Movements Emergence: The tendency for social movements to form to address a perceived social problemCoalescence: A stage of social movements in which the social movement begins to mobilize resources to achieve its goalBureaucratization: The tendency for a social movement to adopt the characteristics of a bureaucratic organization to achieve its goalsDecline: The tendency for all social movements to fade in power and significanceLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.3 Stages of Social MovementsLO: Describe the stages of a social movement.Sociologists studying social movements have discovered that all social movements emerge, grow, and atrophy in the same way. All social movements go through four identifiable stages.In the first social movement stage, emergence, the claims making process convinces people that there is something that needs to be changed about society. As social awareness of the problem grows, the social movement gains momentum. Emergence is key to the development of the sociological imagination because it helps to show people how their personal issues are embedded in the larger social structure.After it emerges, the social movement solidifies its message and goals and develops a strategy for accomplishing those goals. Leaders emerge and develop strategies for improving morale and growing the movement. During this coalescence stage, the movement will begin to acquire and mobilize resources and engage in social action designed to attract the attention of the media, government, or other movements that might have a stake in the issue or in a related issue.As social movements grow and coalesce, they become more and more involved in the political process as a means of advancing the cause. People begin to link their personal issues with the public events. To navigate the complexities of the political landscape, social movements have to adapt their tactics and resources to the political climate. This often results in the formalization of the leadership structure and tactics of the movement through bureaucratization. The strength of the movement relies increasingly on the competency of the bureaucratic process and the staff that implements it rather than the charisma of leaders. Social movements that fail to bureaucratize risk dissolving, particularly if the leader leaves or exhibits weakness. By contrast, social movements that move through the process of bureaucratization tend to become well established. At the same time, bureaucratization can have negative consequences. When social movements become bureaucratized, leaders often begin to neglect the emotional nature of the social movements that keep members motivated in favor of the more technical aspects of leadership required by bureaucracies.All social movements eventually enter a period of decline. There are several reasons social movements decline: they accomplish their goals; poor leadership; members lose interest or the demands of real life get in the way of participation in the movement; they are taken down by outside forces. Opposition to the social movement may mobilize against the movement, defeating it through public opinion, law, or even overt resistance. Generally speaking, the more radical or revolutionary the movement is, the more likely it is to meet resistance.
17The American Civil Rights Movement Fought to end racial discrimination through litigation, education, and lobbying effortsWas centered around peaceful, but forceful, motivationLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.Although the passage of the 13th Amendment outlawed slavery in America, free blacks still faced significant discrimination and even continued slavery. African Americans remained trapped in a cycle of oppression. The United States Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal to those enjoyed by whites. However, while things remained separate, they were certainly not equal. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was co-founded in 1909 by sociologist W. E. B. DuBois to help promote the interests of African Americans in society. The organization fought to end racial discrimination through litigation, education, and lobbying efforts. Initially, these efforts had little effect. Gradually, public action replaced attempts at litigation and lobbying as the dominant means of achieving racial equality. Although the Supreme Court desegregated schools in 1954, many aspects of society remained racially segregated. Although violent protests still occurred, the crux of the movement was centered around peaceful—but forceful—motivation. Organized by many people, but most notably by the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the Montgomery bus boycott, sit-ins, and other peaceful protests gradually led to changes in public opinion. However, public opinion did not always translate into government action. The movement changed tone with the emergence of more radical groups, such as the Black Panthers. Called the Black Power movement, these groups advocated—and sometimes used—violence to achieve their goals when all else failed. Generally, the Black Power movement had the latent effect of giving blacks a sense of pride and purpose in a society that sought to systematically oppress them.Since the 1970s, African Americans have made remarkable progress in many areas. Although African Americans, on average, earn less than whites, the gap is slowly closing. In education, progress for African Americans has made even greater strides. The percentage of blacks graduating from high school is more than 84%, drastically reducing the gap between races. The number of African Americans in college has risen to more than 19%. In politics, African Americans have also made significant progress. As a result of migrations to the city that followed the end of slavery, the political power of urban blacks has increased substantially. Many of the nation’s biggest cities now have African-American mayors and predominantly minority councils. Additionally, an increasing number of state representatives are African American. At the federal level, the election of President Barack Obama followed an increasing representation of African Americans in Congress.
18The Women’s Movement The women’s movement: A series of movements occurring over many years that have been committed to achieving equal rights for women.Three phases:Phase 1: Concerned with the basic rights of women.Phase 2: Focused on issues of sexuality, family, and the workplace.Phase 3: Evolved to criticize social definitions of what it means to be a woman.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.The women’s movement—also known as the feminist movement—really refers to a series of movements occurring over many years that have been committed to achieving equal rights for women. It can be generally divided into three distinct phases. Phase one feminism dates back to the 1800s. The first wave of feminism was concerned with the basic rights of women, such as voting. Women at the time were unable to hold public office and had to forfeit their rights to own property after they got married. Harriet Martineau, the first woman sociologist, likened the treatment of women to the treatment of slaves, noting that such discriminatory policies were antithetical to the Declaration of Independence. In Chicago, Jane Addams co-founded the Hull House, a settlement house for recent European immigrants. Hull House attracted many female residents who went on to become prominent leaders and advocates for women’s issues. More influentially, Margaret Sanger was an early champion for women’s reproductive rights. Sanger coined the term birth control and opened America’s first birth-control clinic.Second-wave feminism spanned the period from the 1960s through the 1990s and focused more on issues of sexuality, family, and the workplace. Betty Friedan’s influential book, The Feminine Mystique, objected to stereotypical portrayals of women, particularly by the mainstream media. In the same year, President John F. Kennedy’s Commission on the Status of Women released a report that documented systemic and pervasive discrimination against women. Fragmented movements were united under the newly formed National Organization of Women—NOW. The movement gained momentum, which led to several legal victories. It also achieved legal victories aimed at reducing domestic violence and increasing women’s reproductive choices.Third-wave feminism began in the 1990s and continues to this day. The movement arose largely in response to a perceived social backlash against the major ideas of second-wave feminism. As the economy gradually improved after a recession in the 1970s, women began making conscious decisions to stay home and raise children rather than go to work. Many feminist leaders recognized that this trend was more prominent among white, middle-class women, and they began to bring their feminist ideals to women of different racial and ethnic origins. This significantly diversified the feminist movement. As a result, third-wave feminism sought to change the way in which women were defined in the media, politics, and social discourse. In this way, it seeks to broaden the definition of womanhood, which, unlike the previous two waves, is not centered around a single goal or theme.
19The Environmental Movement The Environmental movement has had two main goals:ConservationThe creation of social policies that will lead to environmental sustainabilityLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.The environmental movement is generally seen to encompass two main parts. The first part is the conservation movement, which is concerned with preserving the world’s natural resources and species. Green politics has the broader goal of creating social policies that will lead to environmental sustainability.The movement has its origins in the industrialization of Europe. As the factory system expanded, it created the latent consequence of significantly increasing pollution, particularly in the air and water supplies. Early environmentalists recognized the damage that was being done to the environment, and various independent organizations emerged to raise awareness of the effects of environmental degradation. One such organization was the Sierra Club, founded by John Muir in However, it was not until after World War II that the various movements began to build significant membership and solidify their message to the public. While initially, the movement focused on the preservation of natural resources and the reduction of pollution, in recent years the environmental movement has focused increasing energy on raising awareness of global climate change. Environmentalists argue that global climate change is a significant environmental concern because global temperature changes exacerbated by the expulsion of greenhouse gases will impact the habitats of many species, perhaps driving them to extinction. As a direct result of the environmental movement, governments have begun to adopt policies that seek to balance quality of life with sustainability. The environmental movement has also spawned profitable enterprises. As people become more aware of the benefits of environmental efficiency and sustainability, they desire products that reflect those values. Biodegradable packaging, organic foods, and houses built solely from recycled materials are all examples of the ways in which the marketplace has responded to the increasing demand for sustainable products.
20The Gay Rights Movement The goal of achieving acceptance and equal rights for people of all sexual orientations and sexualitiesWorks through the media and the legal systemLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.Properly known as the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered) movement, the gay rights movement remains one of the most controversial social movements in American history. Although the movement has deep historical roots, the American gay rights movement found its voice after the Stonewall Inn in New York’s Greenwich Village was raided by police in The raid turned violent and led to a riot that lasted more than two days. Today, the movement is largely concerned with achieving acceptance and equal rights for people of all sexual orientations and sexualities. This has been done in a variety of ways. Mainstream aspects of the movement have been primarily concerned with achieving social justice through gaining acceptance for LGBT people in society by increasing their presence in media, as well as through legal victories on issues such as marriage equality and the rights of same-sex partners to make medical decisions for one another. Despite some states passing Constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between one man and one woman, same-sex partners have achieved the right to marry in other states (Figure 17-3). The patchwork differences in the handling of gay marriage have led to considerable controversy over the recognition of marriage between states. It is likely that these kinds of issues will have to be settled by the United States Supreme Court.The LGBT rights movement has met with strong resistance. Many groups rooted in traditional Christian values have sought to vilify homosexuality as sinful or abnormal. However, scientific studies on homosexuality and homosexual relationships have helped to temper the influence of such groups. There is mounting evidence that homosexuality and bisexualityhave a strong biological component, largely silencing the claims that homosexuality is a choice or a disease that can be cured. Rather, homosexuality is simply a type of human variation, such as skin color or height. It is part of the biological heritage of the human species.
21The Occupy Wall Street Movement Attempted to raise awareness of growing income inequality and corporate influenceRelied on consensus-based decisions made in large assembliesDid not have clear-cut goalsLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.The Occupy Wall Street movement began in 2011 in New York City after financial markets and housing markets tumbled. The movement centered on issues of corporate profit, economic inequality, and the influence of large corporations on politics. The movement argued that financial greed led to questionable business practices that directly led to the collapse of several large corporations. Deemed “too big to fail,” these corporations were bailed out by the government using American tax dollars. The movement spread to cities across the country, attempting to raise awareness of growing income inequality and corporate influence. Unlike other social movements that have a clear and solid leadership, the Occupy Wall Street movement relied on consensus-based decisions made in large assemblies. As the movement grew, the democratic nature of the movement made focused action increasingly difficult. Additionally, the movement expanded its demands to include jobs, forgiveness of debt, and other financial incentives that were seen by opponents as excessive and irresponsible. The confusion about the actual goals of the movement led some critics to contend that the Occupy Wall Street movement had no real focused demands at all but rather simply adopted the ideas of whoever yelled the loudest. Although the movement officially continues, it lost steam after a protest in New York led to the arrest of 700 people who blocked traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge in October Although many people remain sympathetic to the movement, it has failed to achieve any of its many stated goals.
22The Tea Party Movement The Tea Party movement: Arose in protest of increasing government intervention in the lives of citizensArticulated a clear set of demands from its inceptionHas remained politically relevant at state and local levelsLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.4 Social Movements in the United StatesLO: Analyze key social movements in the United States.The Tea Party Movement is named after the historic Boston Tea Party, in which colonial Americans tossed tea into Boston Harbor to protest an English tax. The modern Tea Party movement arose in protest of increasing government intervention in the lives of citizens, increased government spending, and perceived abandonment of Constitutional provisions.Unlike the Occupy Wall Street movement, the Tea Party movement articulated a clear set of demands since its inception. Among them is a drastic reduction in the federal deficit through a decrease in federal spending; a return to Constitutional principles of limited government; and a reduction of taxes. The Tea Party movement seeks to accomplish these goals through peaceful protest, increasing awareness of the issues, and the election of sympathetic politicians. Through this last strategy, the Tea Party has managed to influence the direction of American politics. However, the Tea Party has faced considerable opposition and even backlash. Using media outlets, Tea Party opponents have managed to associate the movement with evangelical Christians and social conservatives. Many of the political candidates supported by the Tea Party have not been as effective as legislators as anticipated. However, the fiscal conservatism of the Tea Party platform has tended to resonate with large segments of the population concerned about the state of the economy, and the movement has remained politically relevant at the state and local levels.
23Mass Society TheoryMass society theory: A theory that suggests that people join social movements because it gives them a sense of belonging to something larger than themselvesLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.Developed by sociologist William Kornhuaser in 1959, mass society theory argues that people join social movements because it gives them a sense of belonging to something larger than themselves. Whereas people in traditional societies gain a sense of belonging from conformity to society, people in industrial and postindustrial societies gain a sense of belonging from the groups that they belong to. The sense of belonging that comes from joining a social movement occurs not only on the personal level but also on the political level in that it is perceived as changing society for the better. That is why social movements occur only in large-scale, impersonal societies. When people are strongly integrated into society, they have no need to join a social movement. However, as their sense of anomie increases, so does the likelihood of people joining social movements as a means of gaining a connection to society.Mass society theory has been heavily criticized. Several studies have found that, contrary to the predictions of mass society theory, individuals who had actively participated in social movements had strong family and community ties. They participated in social movements not to overcome isolation but rather to overcome perceived injustices. Similarly, it should be noted that the most marginalized citizens in modern society—the poor and the homeless, for example—rarely join social movements because they are often too worried about day-to-day living to engage in social movements. In fact, most people who join social movements are well adjusted, strongly integrated members of society.
24Deprivation TheoryDeprivation theory: A theory that states people join social movements because they feel deprived in some wayRelative deprivation: The feeling of dissatisfaction upon realizing that while conditions are improving, they are improving more for other people than for youLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.An alternative theory of social movements is deprivation theory. According to this theory, people join social movements because they feel deprived by society in some way. This deprivation could be monetary, but it also could be in terms of status, justice, or privilege. People who feel deprived join social movements to overcome their deprivation. While this theory may explain some social movements, it still leaves much unexplained. For example, while it is clear that some people join social movements because they feel in some way deprived, not everyone who is deprived will join social movements. In fact the vast majority of people who join social movements are relatively well off in terms of social status, privilege, and money. Additionally, while deprivation occurs in every society, not all societies see the emergence of social movements. For example, a century and half ago, French writerAlexis de Tocqueville (1835/1955) noted that while peasants in both French society and German society were living in horribly bad conditions, only the French revolted and overthrew their government. De Tocqueville argued that the French Revolution occurred because, while the conditions of the Germans were remaining poor, the conditions of the French were actually improving. Why would improving conditions facilitate a social movement? De Tocqueville argued that the reason was relative deprivation. As conditions improved for the French, they realized exactly what they lacked relative to the wealthiest classes and sought to get for themselves all of the things that they believed they could have. Conversely, the Germans peasants believed that things would never improve and thus never formed a movement to improve their conditions. In other words, when people’s expectations exceed their experiences, the perception of deprivation is stronger, making the emergence of a social movement more likely.
25Resource Mobilization Theory Resource mobilization theory: A theory that suggests that for a social movement to be successful, it has to accumulate and mobilize substantial resourcesPolitical process theory: A theory of social movements that emphasizes the role of the political structure and public opinion in the outcomes of social movementsLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.Resource mobilization theory argues that for a social movement to be successful, it has to accumulate and mobilize substantial resources. Resources may be tangible, such as money or equipment, or intangible, such as commitments of participants. Through the accumulation and distribution of resources, the social movement articulates and clarifies its goals and gains momentum. Proper mobilization of resources is important for the success of a social movement for a couple of reasons. First, resources are important to provide funding for the movement. Resources also help the movement to achieve an identity and define its agenda. Social movements that develop formalized bureaucratic structures are better able to sustain movements over time. However, at the same time, social movements that are more informal tend to be more innovative in their tactics and in the use of their resources.Political process theory extends traditional resource mobilization theory by including external forces in understanding the factors that allow a social movement to succeed or fail. The political process approach emphasizes the role of the political structure and public opinion in the outcomes of social movements. In other words, the ability of a social movement to effect change and the way in which it distributes its resources are dependent upon the social and political climate. When the political climate is hostile to the goals of a social movement, leaders of the movement may need to devote more resources to combat that hostility than when the political climate is amenable to the goals of the social movement.
26Culture TheoryCulture theory: A theory that argues that cultural symbols are important for the development of a social movementLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.Culture theory is a relatively recently developed theory of social movements. Culture theory argues that mobilization of a social movement is dependent upon factors discussed in other theories, such as deprivation theory, but that these theories do not go far enough in understanding how social movements are formed. Culture theory recognizes that social movements do rely on the mobilization of resources. However, it also suggests that culture symbols are also important to the success of social movements. That is, people will join and participate in a social movement to the degree that they develop shared understandings of the world that lend legitimacy to social movements. The ways in which a society defines justice and opportunity influence the way in which people perceive the necessity and effectiveness of a social movement. People who perceive that social justice is unattainable through individual action come to see social movements as means to achieving justice. As the social movement gains strength, it develops its own understandings, symbols, and definitions that help build a connection between the movement and its members and that frame its appearance and actions in the larger society.
27New Social Movement Theory New social movement theory: A theory that suggests that social movements in postindustrial societies are substantially different from social movements that occurred in industrial societiesLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.New social movement theory suggests that social movements in postindustrial societies are substantially different from social movements that occurred in industrial societies. In industrial Europe, early social movements were focused primarily on economic issues such as wages and hours worked. Current social movements are generally focused more on improving social and physical surroundings. Additionally, most modern social movements are international rather than regional. New forms of social media and increasing globalization allow social movements to reach across national boundaries to create international social movements. Finally, while traditional social movements were supported primarily by the working class and the poor, modern social movements draw more support from the middle class and the upper middle class. While more affluent people tend to be conservative on economic issues, they tend to be more liberal on social issues. Thus, modern social movements appeal to their sense of social justice. Also, while working-class people have less time to devote to social movements because of the demands of working, more affluent people have more leisure time to devote to social movements.
28Marxist TheoryMarxist theory: A theory of social movements that suggests that societies change through a dialectical processLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.5 Theories of Social MovementsLO: Explain the main theories of social movements.Although less well known as a theory of social movements, Marxist theory has nonetheless been highly influential in helping us understand the emergence and development of social movements. Marx’s writings have laid the foundation for many of the early social movements that resulted in improved working conditions and greater social justice. Of particular importance is the concept of the dialectic (Figure 17-4). Borrowing from philosopher Friedrich Hegel, Marx discussed how social movements result in a new kind of society. The dialectic begins with the thesis— the way things already are. Individuals or groups dislike the thesis for one reason or another and wish to change the status quo. As the idea of change is promoted, it is clarified and refined. It then becomes an antithesis— an alternative to the thesis. Eventually, through the process of social change, political upheaval, revolution, or pressure from citizens, a new position emerges that is no longer the thesis but does not meet all of the demands of the antithesis. This new position is neither the thesis nor the antithesis but something in the middle. This is called the synthesis. The synthesis then becomes the new thesis, and the process is repeated. Marx saw social change as occurring through this dialectic. However, he believed that the dialectic changed little except who was in charge of society. Marx advocated for a revolution of the working class to overthrow the wealthy. Through this revolution, the dialectic would end in a perfect society in which private property was abolished. The need for further social change—for further social movements—would vanish.
29Categories of Social Change: Natural Cycles Natural cycle theories attempt to explain the rise and fall of entire civilizations.Every civilization faces challenges.Groups within a society develop solutions that often conflict with the ruling class.The ruling elite eventually turns to force to keep the masses under control.The resultant fracturing of society leads to the inevitable decline of the empire.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.6 Social ChangeLO: Illustrate the theories of social change.Nearly every prominent social theorist has developed a theory of social change. Generally, these theories can be grouped into four major categorizations: natural cycles, evolution, conflict over power, and technology.Natural cycle theories attempt to explain the rise and fall of entire civilizations. They approach civilizations as if they were organisms, complete with birth, growth, decline, and senescence. There is evidence that supports this cycle. The deeper question is why the cycle seems to be universal, regardless of the civilization’s place in history or its geography.Historian Arnold Toynbee suggested that every civilization faces challenges to its existence. Groups within the society develop solutions to those challenges, which often conflict with the ruling class. For a while, the ruling class is able to deal effectively with these challenges. However, as the empire grows, external challenges consume more and more of the ruling elite’s energy and time. The ruling class becomes less and less able to deal with internal challenges. Eventually, the ruling elite must turn to force to keep the masses under control. This leads to a fracturing of society that eventually causes the decline of the empire. This decline is rarely sudden. In fact, the decline may occur over many generations. However, this decline is inevitable.
30Evolutionary Theories Evolutionary theories suggest that societies develop from lower forms to higher forms.All societies go through phases of cultural progress.As they develop, cultures become more complex.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.6 Social ChangeLO: Illustrate the theories of social change.So-called evolutionary theories of how societies change are more akin to development than to evolution. Generally speaking, these theories suggest that societies develop from lower forms to higher forms. At first, these theories were unilinear., positing that all societies develop along the same linear trajectory that begins from the simplest and progresses to the more complex. Although there are many ways in which this linear process may be categorized, the most influential has come from Lewis Morgan. Morgan suggested that all societies proceed through three stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Later multilinear theories proposed that there are many developmental routes that lead to the same outcome. All evolutionary theories assume that societies go through phases of cultural progress. As they develop, cultures become more complex, more sophisticated. That is, the will all eventually advance to a higher state. Critics of evolutionary theories point out that such approaches are ethnocentric because they presume that more advanced cultures are superior to less advanced ones. As sociologists gain an appreciation for the diversity and richness of all cultures, the ideas of the evolutionary theorists become increasingly less palatable. In fact, there is mounting evidence that all societies are equally complex. Many critics also contend that Western culture is in decline, with high rates of violence, poverty, and war.
31Conflict Over PowerConflict-over-power approaches are based in the dialectic of Karl Marx.Antitheses are conflicts over who gains or maintains power in society.Between societies, conflicts over power often occur in violent clashes or as indirect competition.Learn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.6 Social ChangeLO: Illustrate the theories of social change.The conflict-over-power approach has its origins in the dialectic of Karl Marx. With each thesis, the seeds of its own destruction are sown through the development of the antithesis and the creation of the synthesis. According to the conflict-over-power theory, many of the antitheses are conflicts over who will gain or maintain power in society. This process occurs both between groups within societies as well as between societies. Between societies, conflicts over power often occur in violent clashes or as indirect competition.
32Technology Technology changes society through three main processes: Invention: The combining of existing materials to form new onesDiscovery: A new way of seeing realityDiffusion: The spread of discovery or invention from one area to anotherLearn SociologyChapter 17: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change17.6 Social ChangeLO: Illustrate the theories of social change.The first person to formally develop the ways in which technology affects social change was William Ogburn. Ogburn said that technology changes society by three main processes.Ogburn defined invention as the combining of existing materials to form new ones. Ogburn believed that inventions could also be ideas or social interactions. The second way in which technology influences social change is through discovery, a new way to see reality. This differs from invention in that while invention is created, discovery is found. The reality already exists; it is just seen for the first time. Finally, Ogburn stressed that diffusion is a strong force of social change. Diffusion is defined as the spread of discovery or invention from one area to another.Not all elements of society are affected by invention, diffusion, and discovery in the same way. Sometimes only certain parts of society are affected. Sometimes different social institutions change at different rates. Ogburn coined the term cultural lag to refer to how some elements of culture change faster than others. Ogburn’s theory has been criticized as being one directional because he failed to acknowledge how social change affects technology. It should be noted that Ogburn never indicated that technology was the only force for social change, nor did he suggest that people or societies are at the mercy of technology. However, he did argue that material culture usually changes before symbolic culture. It appears that most of the time, this directional rule holds true.