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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section 1: Collective Behavior Section 2: Social Movements

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Collective Behavior- the relatively spontaneous social behavior that occurs when people try to develop common solutions to unclear situations. Collective Behavior- the relatively spontaneous social behavior that occurs when people try to develop common solutions to unclear situations. 2

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Characteristics of Collectives-3 Factors Limited Interaction- members of social groups generally interact with one another directly, often for long periods of time. Interaction among members of collectives is limited and sometimes nonexistent. Limited Interaction- members of social groups generally interact with one another directly, often for long periods of time. Interaction among members of collectives is limited and sometimes nonexistent. 3

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Unclear Norms- the norms that guide behavior in social groups are clearly defined and widely understood. In collectives, norms for behavior are either unclear or unconventional. Unclear Norms- the norms that guide behavior in social groups are clearly defined and widely understood. In collectives, norms for behavior are either unclear or unconventional. Limited Unity- people who form social groups are generally united by an awareness that they are members of these groups. Members are collectives seldom share a sense of group unity. Limited Unity- people who form social groups are generally united by an awareness that they are members of these groups. Members are collectives seldom share a sense of group unity. 4

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Collectivity- A gathering of people who have limited interaction with one another and do not share clearly defined, conventional norms or a sense of group identity. Collectivity- A gathering of people who have limited interaction with one another and do not share clearly defined, conventional norms or a sense of group identity. 5

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Types of Collectivities Crowds – temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interact Crowds – temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interact Mobs – a mob is an emotionally charge collectivity whose members are united by a specific destructive or violent goal. Mobs – a mob is an emotionally charge collectivity whose members are united by a specific destructive or violent goal. Riots- a collection of people who erupt into generalized destructive behavior, the result of which is social disorder. Riots- a collection of people who erupt into generalized destructive behavior, the result of which is social disorder. Section 1: Collective Behavior

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Types of Collectivities Panics – a spontaneous and uncoordinated group action to escape some perceived threat Panics – a spontaneous and uncoordinated group action to escape some perceived threat Mass Hysteria – an unfounded anxiety shared by people who can be scattered over a wide geographic area Mass Hysteria – an unfounded anxiety shared by people who can be scattered over a wide geographic area Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Types of Collectivities Fashion– fashion refers to enthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behavior. Fashion– fashion refers to enthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behavior. Fads- is an unconventional object, action, or idea that a large number of people are attached to for a very short period of time Fads- is an unconventional object, action, or idea that a large number of people are attached to for a very short period of time Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Types of Collectivities Rumors – a rumor is an unverified piece of information that is spread rapidly from one person to another. Rumors – a rumor is an unverified piece of information that is spread rapidly from one person to another. Urban Legends- is a story that teaches a lesson and seems realistic but is untrue. Urban Legends- is a story that teaches a lesson and seems realistic but is untrue. Public Opinion – refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issue Public Opinion – refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issue Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Explanations for Collective Behavior Contagion Theory/Gustave LeBon – the hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up their individuality to the stronger pull of the group Contagion Theory/Gustave LeBon – the hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up their individuality to the stronger pull of the group Emergent-Norm Theory/Ralph Turn & Lewis Killian people in a crowd are often faced with a situation in which traditional norms of behavior do not apply Emergent-Norm Theory/Ralph Turn & Lewis Killian people in a crowd are often faced with a situation in which traditional norms of behavior do not apply Value-Added Theory/Neil Smelser – explains crowd behavior as a process that moves from step to step Value-Added Theory/Neil Smelser – explains crowd behavior as a process that moves from step to step Section 1: Collective Behavior

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Structural Conduciveness – refers to the surrounding social structure that makes it possible for a particular type of collective behavior to occur Structural Conduciveness – refers to the surrounding social structure that makes it possible for a particular type of collective behavior to occur Structural Strain – refers to social conditions that put strain on people and thus encourage them to seek some collective means of relief Structural Strain – refers to social conditions that put strain on people and thus encourage them to seek some collective means of relief Section 1: Collective Behavior

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Growth and Spread of Generalized Belief – people identify the problem, form opinions about it, and share ways of dealing with it Growth and Spread of Generalized Belief – people identify the problem, form opinions about it, and share ways of dealing with it Precipitating Factors – refer to triggering mechanisms that set off the behavior Precipitating Factors – refer to triggering mechanisms that set off the behavior Social Control – a mechanism used to control or minimize a situation Social Control – a mechanism used to control or minimize a situation Section 1: Collective Behavior (continued)

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Types of Social Movements Reactionary – try to prevent a type of social change and return society to a past way of being; often use fear and violence; example: Ku Klux Klan Reactionary – try to prevent a type of social change and return society to a past way of being; often use fear and violence; example: Ku Klux Klan Conservative – try to protect prevailing values from what are seen as threats to those values; examples: the religious right Conservative – try to protect prevailing values from what are seen as threats to those values; examples: the religious right Section 2: Social Movements

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Types of Social Movements Revisionary – try to improve some part of society through social change; usually use legal methods and focus on a single issue; example: womens suffrage movement Revisionary – try to improve some part of society through social change; usually use legal methods and focus on a single issue; example: womens suffrage movement Section 2: Social Movements (continued)

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Types of Social Movements Revolutionary – seek a total radical change or existing social structure, overthrow existing government and replace it with their own version; often involve violent or illegal methods; example: the American Revolution Revolutionary – seek a total radical change or existing social structure, overthrow existing government and replace it with their own version; often involve violent or illegal methods; example: the American Revolution Section 2: Social Movements (continued)

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Life Cycle of Social Movements Agitation – initial stirrings of a movement Agitation – initial stirrings of a movement Legitimation – movement viewed as more respectable Legitimation – movement viewed as more respectable Bureaucratization – structure of movement more formal Bureaucratization – structure of movement more formal Institutionalization – an established part of society Institutionalization – an established part of society Section 2: Social Movements

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Explaining Social Movements Relative Deprivation Theory – people join social movements because they feel deprived relative to other people or groups with whom they identify Relative Deprivation Theory – people join social movements because they feel deprived relative to other people or groups with whom they identify Resource-Mobilization Theory – not even the most ill-treated group with the most just cause will be able to bring about change without resources Resource-Mobilization Theory – not even the most ill-treated group with the most just cause will be able to bring about change without resources Section 2: Social Movements


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