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Low Rise Occupancies Center Hallway Attack

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1 Low Rise Occupancies Center Hallway Attack
Henderson Fire Dept. Tactical Standards

2 Objectives Identify type of construction for Low Rise Buildings
Identify pertinent fire & building codes Explain Fire behavior in these structures Describe construction benefits vs problems Identify tactical needs Recognize firefighting problems in Low Rise structures Explain organization and responsibilities of the center hallway attack Explain basic offensive, defensive tactics at Low Rise fires.

3 Objectives for Sets/Reps
Complete dispatch and en-route responsibilities Complete Brief Initial Report & Follow-up Report Identify command mode & strategy Conduct initial size-up Develop Incident Action Plan Establish, construct and operate an appropriate and effective ICS system Evaluate and request adequate resources Make appropriate assignments with tactical objectives Identify benchmarks and communicate when appropriate Conduct on-going size-up and adjust IAP accordingly Complete Tactical worksheet and maintain personnel accountability Explain and justify strategy decision, IAP, tactics and assignments Identify critical factors & apply RMP

4 Overview Overview Many Forms Unique Problems
Low Rise occupancies are increasing in numbers throughout Henderson. These buildings provide a variety of uses. Commonly we see the Holiday Inn Express, Hampton Inn, and Comfort Inn etc. Other common low rise occupancies in Henderson are small office, medical and dental businesses. We also have assisted living occupancies like Portofino Senior Apts. or Annabelle Pines, as-well-as mixed use buildings like the District at Green Valley (retail on the ground floor with condos above). It is imperative that Officers become familiar with the low rise occupancies in their area. Identify the best points of access, the location of stairwells, elevators, and FDC’s. We do not want to be trying to figure this out in the middle of the night with smoke showing and people trapped. Many Forms - Our standard definition for a Low Rise Building will be: A commercial or residential building that is four stories or less. There can be a variety of occupancies that fit into this description. The most common in our community include: Small hotel/motels, office buildings, retirement/assisted living facilities, medical buildings and mixed use retail/residential or retail/office. The good news is that many will have common design features. The center hallway being the most prevalent. In one form or another, rooms or occupancies have doors that open to a common hallway. The bad news is that within the code there can be many variations in these structures. This chapter will concentrate on the design features that can help us make safe strategic decisions as-well-as coordinate an effective attack. Unique Problems - Some of the most critical include: Significant life hazard, lack of standpipes, lack of ventilation systems, and open attics. Since many of these buildings have a significant life hazard we must be proactive in our approach to meeting this tactical objective. A fully involved room at Holiday Inn Express will warrant an Offensive Strategy. Viable lives and undamaged property are still present. On the other hand, you could arrive to a three story office building with smoke showing at 2am. Your risk management evaluation would be totally different. The fact that many of these buildings are not required to have standpipes produces another unique challenge. This creates a situation where we must bring our own standpipe if we are going to be operating on upper floors. 2 1/2 inch lines will need to be laid in the stairwells to insure we have the firepower once we arrive at the fire floor.

5 Construction Type V Lightweight Type II Non-combustible Roof
Type V Lightweight - Most of the low rise buildings in Henderson are lightweight wood construction. Many may have steel support beams as a part of their engineering, but they are primarily wood. Their fire resistive rating comes from the use of sheetrock and other non-combustible coverings. The primary protective component for these combustible buildings is the sprinkler system. Type II Non-combustible - Some of these structures are built with exterior tilt-up walls or concrete masonry units. Roof and floor assemblies utilize lightweight steel truss systems. Metal framing material is also commonly used. The interior of these concrete and metal buildings are divided by sheetrock partition walls. The combustible component of this type of building is essentially the contents. A type II low rise is still required to have a sprinkler system. Roof - The roof construction on these buildings can come in a variety of forms. Some of the more common include: A built-up flat roof utilizing corrugated steel panels and steel trusses A built-up flat roof with wood trusses and wood decking A pitched tile roof with wood trusses and wood decking A pitched metal roof with metal trusses Or a combination of any of the above. Remember, once you add a sprinkler system to a building, you are allowed to combine building materials.

6 Lightweight Roof & Floor assemblies

7 Codes Codes Sprinklers Standpipes Fire Pumps Hydrants
Separations - walls/floors/ceilings Stairs/Elevators Attic Space Detection/Alarms Codes The primary focus in the fire code for these occupancies is the correct design and installation of the sprinkler system. If this system is installed correctly it would be very rare for us to have any significant fire in one of these buildings. The bad news includes the fact that the installation of the sprinkler system allows the builder to eliminate or modify many of the safety construction features of the past. Also, if the system fails, we could have some real challenges controlling this fire. The other key elements of the code include: early detection, keeping smoke and fire out of the common hallways/stairs, and preventing vertical fire/smoke extension. Sprinklers - These occupancies are required to have sprinkler systems with a FDC. Two story low rise buildings are not required to have sprinklers located in the attic space - three stories or more are required. Standpipes - The code states that a standpipe is required if an occupied floor is greater than 30 feet above the lowest point of fire department access, or if the travel distance from the fire lane to the most remote point exceeds 200 feet. What this means to us: Buildings that are 3 stories and below will probably not have a standpipe, and buildings that are 4 stories might. Obviously the most important thing is to know the buildings in your district. The presence of a standpipe could substantially change the required equipment and tasks to implement a coordinated attack. Example: No standpipe - you will need to pull your 2 1/2 up through the appropriate stairwell to organize your attack. With a standpipe - you should charge the FDC and hook up your high rise pack or feed bags to the standpipe for fire attack. Fire pump - If a standpipe is required, a fire pump will also be installed. If the city water pressure cannot maintain the minimum sprinkler pressures, a fire pump will be required. Hydrants - Hydrants are required every 300 feet or every 400 feet if the building has sprinklers. Any property that has 4 or more hydrants should have at least 2 sources of water supply from the system. Separations walls/floors/ceilings - The fire code for these occupancies concentrates on keeping fire and smoke out of the corridors and from moving vertically floor to floor. In the past there was a 1 hour rating requirement between the rooms and the hallway/corridor and also a 1 hour rating in the floor/ceiling assemblies. In new buildings you may or may not have the one hour separation. The void space created by the floor/ceiling assembly must have sprinklers or non-combustible insulation present if the structural components are combustible (wood). There is typically no rating requirement between rooms on the same floor. However, there is still sheetrock on both sides of the partition wall between rooms. This is a decent fire break. Also, these partition walls between rooms typically extend to the floor decking above for sound proofing. The stairwells will be constructed with a 1 hour rating for two story buildings, and a 2 hour rating for three or more stories. All doors that are a part of the rated hallway or stairwell will be self closing and meet the minimum 1 hour requirement. The windows in residential structures that are below the 4th story are required to be operable. Other windows in the structures are not required to be operable, but many are. The windows are made of breakable glass. This provides an opportunity for quick ventilation. All plumbing shafts should have a one hour rating. These shafts run the height of the building and support bathrooms which are stacked. Stairs/Elevators - If the occupant load is over 10, then at least two sets of stairs are required. Sprinklers are required in the stairwell. But the code does not mandate a vestibule or any ventilation system in the stairs. We must pressurize the stairs with our fans. Only one elevator is required in these occupancies. There is no back-up power requirement for these elevators. Attic Space - As mentioned before, if the building is only 2 stories, sprinklers may not be required in the attic. Occupancies that have 3 or more floors will have sprinklers in the attic space. The attic space is not required to be separated by fire partitions in any of these buildings. If there is a sprinkler malfunction, this is a huge open combustible area. Detection/Alarms - A Fire Alarm Panel (FAP) is required and is usually located near the main point of entry. The interior hallways/corridors must have smoke detection and smoke alarms are required in the rooms. Also, self closing dampers are required where HVAC duct work penetrates rated construction.

8 Fire Spread & Construction Problems
Lightweight Wood Limited Access Open Attic Truss Roof Floor/Ceiling assemblies HVAC No Standpipe Vertical Extension If these occupancies are designed and constructed within the fire code, it would be very rare for us to have a significant fire problem at one of these locations. A properly planned and installed sprinkler system will defend against any significant fire. The primary teaching point the Prevention Division wanted to emphasize to our operational personnel was the fact that these buildings are built with the intent that the sprinkler system is going to solve the fire problem. With the application of a sprinkler system, builders are allowed to eliminate or modify many of the old fire safety construction components. This fact should emphasize two primary areas of focus. First we must make sure the sprinkler system is supported. And secondly, if we arrive to a significant fire at one of these buildings, something very unusual is happening = “red flag”. Lightweight Wood - The majority of the low rise occupancies in Henderson are constructed entirely of wood. Small dimensional lumber is the most common structural component. If fire is allowed to enter the void spaces it will gain access to a huge fire load and can compromise the structural integrity of the building. Limited Access - Generally there are only a few doors that allow access into these occupancies. Commonly we will have a main entrance to the lobby, a rear access point, and exits from two different stairwells. This is why it is vital for you to identify the location of the problem during your recon. We must quickly recognize our best point of access to combat the fire problem and direct resources to that area. Open Attic - As mentioned in the code section, because of the installation of sprinklers in the attic, there is no requirement to divide this massive void space. These attics can be several hundred feet long and feet high, depending on the pitch. If the sprinklers activate as designed, this should not be a problem. If they don’t, it will be almost impossible to stop this attic fire. The heat and flame will have access to an enormous amount of fuel (wood) and oxygen. A fire in the attic which is not controlled by the sprinkler system = “red flag” very dangerous. A fire that has extended into the attic but is controlled by the sprinkler system, would warrant basic overhaul. Get to the location, pull ceiling and mop up the remaining embers. Truss Roof - These occupancies utilize large engineered truss systems to support the roof. Trusses will be present in both flat and pitched roof construction. Rolled bar steel trusses can be used, but the most common is wood. This roof construction comes with all of the dangers of truss systems (partial or total collapse). If we have significant fire in the truss area we should not be on or under these locations. Floor/Ceiling Assemblies - The floor/ceiling assemblies are supported by trusses or wooden I beams. Per code, if the construction components are combustible, sprinklers or non-combustible insulation will be present in this void to protect against fire spread. However, if we have significant fire under, over or inside these assemblies, partial or total collapse is eminent. If you are assigned above the fire room, be very aware of the possibility of an unstable floor under your feet. HVAC - The HVAC systems come in many different forms. Some have systems for each room while others have systems for each floor and others have centralized systems that serve the entire building. We need to be very aware of the HVAC systems that include duct work. These avenues become easy access for fire/smoke spread into void spaces as-well-as other locations in the building. As with any other occupancy, these vents/ducts should be included in initial overhaul. No Standpipe - The absence of a standpipe creates significant task and tactical level changes. Crews working aloft, on or above the fire floor, must have adequate water supply/flow. We must bring our own standpipe to those assignments. This means pulling 2 1/2 inch lines to those locations. As mentioned in the code section, a four story low rise will most likely have a standpipe and three stories or less probably won’t. Be familiar with the buildings in your districts. Vertical Extension - Because of the use of breakable glass in exterior windows, vertical fire extension can become a real problem in these buildings. Glass will break at about 700 degrees. When the fire escapes the room of origin through the window it will lap up the side of the building breaking other windows within its reach. It may be prudent to hold this extension in check from the exterior (transitional tactic) until we can get crews in place to knock down the fire from the interior.

9 Construction Benefits
Low Rise Protected Hallways/Corridors Protected Stairwells Breakable Glass Protection Systems Detection Systems Although there are problems that these occupancies present to responders, there are also several benefits we can use to our advantage. Low Rise - The fact that these buildings are four stories or less is a great advantage to our operational effectiveness. We are able to place initial lines and coordinate/support an effective attack much quicker than high rise structures: It is not as far to climb, a single company can begin to get operations moving (you do not need to wait for a second crew to ascend), a transitional tactic may be effective, support activities can be conducted on the ground (staging, on deck, recycle, rehab, equipment cache), initial and subsequent crews won’t need to bring as much equipment aloft, evacuation will have fewer floors to manage etc. Protected Hallways/Corridors - If this design feature performs properly it will allow us to advance down a relatively clear hallway to the fire room. The rated walls and self-closing doors should hold the fire to the room of origin during the early stages when we arrive. The breakable glass will allow the fire to ventilate to the exterior - releasing smoke and heat. Within the first 15 minutes we should be able to pressurize the stairwell and corridor and advance attack lines to the fire room. Protected Stairwells - These protected vertical shafts provide us with an area of safe haven to mount our operations, as-well-as an area to retreat and exit. Because they are four stories or less the stairwells are easily pressurized with fans. Breakable Glass - This feature will allow the heat and smoke to vent to the exterior. It will enable our crews to coordinate a ventilation plan early in the incident. The fire will either self vent through the windows or we can easily accomplish this task from a ladder. Fans can be placed to enhance this ventilation technique. The breakable glass in the exterior windows also allows us other avenues of access or egress. Most of these windows should be accessible from the aerial which could provide additional options for evacuation, rescue or applying a master stream from the exterior. Protection Systems - The sprinkler system should hold the fire in check until we can arrive. The protected hallways/corridors and stairwells should allow safe egress. Detection Systems - Early detection and alarms should produce an effective notification and evacuation of most occupants. These systems should also be able to provide us with information on the location of the problem.

10 Basic Firefighting Tactics The Center Hallway Attack
Resources Recon & Follow-up report Organization Water Supply/Hose Going Aloft (multi-story) w/o standpipe, w/ standpipe 1st floor (multi-story) Single story center hallway Equipment Ventilation - Vertical vs Horizontal Utilities The Center Hallway Attack The goal of the center hallway attack is to create a safe, effective and coordinated offensive attack strategy that can be utilized in any building less than 5 stories with a center hallway configuration. Five stories and above would warrant the High Rise Plan. Whether we have a single story building with occupancies connected to a common hallway, or a 3 story hotel with rooms connected to a hallway, our overall organization should be similar. Resources – Confirm a 5th Engine and 2nd Truck was included on dispatch to a reported fire at a Low Rise building. A confirmed fire at a Low Rise building requires a 2nd alarm. The 2nd alarm should be given a location for level II staging and a Tac channel (zone 7 tac 7). Also inform the 2nd alarm of the operations channel. Recon - A good recon will be critical at these occupancies. Use all of the tools that are available to you: street maps, target maps, visual recon, employees, the fire alarm panel, and most importantly Pre-Planning. This will play a major role in the organization of our scene and the coordination of our attack. On arrival meet with employees/security to receive any available information: fire location and size, best access, presence and location of a standpipe, obtain keys if necessary and what evacuation actions are under way. Take a firefighter with the company officer to perform the Recon. This firefighter will be able to communicate fire location and coordinate the desired hose lay with their crew. The fire location and intensity will determine the proper hose lay. Recon the floor below to help estimate distances and understand the building layout. Taking enough time to perform a proper recon and identifying the best point of entry cannot be over emphasized. This will save time by making the proper hose lay the first time. There will be a large amount of communication during a center hallway recon and attack. Critical information in your follow-up should include: Strategy Command Mode Location of fire Center Hallway Attack Identify the point of access/attack stairwell Presence of standpipe? Hose plan Ventilation needs Example: “Control from Command, this will be an Offensive fire in the Fast Attack mode. We have a fire on the 3rd floor of a 4 story low rise. This will be a center hallway attack. We will be utilizing the north stairway for fire attack. A standpipe is in place. We will be advancing our 2 ½ from our highrise pack. We will be setting up positive pressure ventilation.” Example: “This is an Offensive fire in Fast Attack Mode. We have a fire on the first floor of a 3 story low rise. This is a center hallway. We will be utilizing the main lobby entrance for fire attack. There is no standpipe. We will be pulling our 1 ¾ cross lay. Setting up PPV.” Other early communications will include, informing back-up of your hose plan and what hose/equipment they well need to bring. You should also advise the engineer of the hose plan in order to insure correct pumping pressures. If the company officer ascends multiple floors, give one report to describe conditions on other floors. Organization - The objective for the first alarm units will be to get adequate resources assigned to the fire floor (Fire Attack, Back-up, RIT), a crew to the floor above (Division ?), a crew to ensure proper ventilation (Ventilation Group) and a crew “On Deck” to be utilized where needed most. The 2nd alarm will be used to assist or relieve first alarm assignments and fill other unaddressed needs. As soon as an Offensive Strategy is declared, and a Center Hallway is identified, we should work towards building the following attack: Assign an IRIT/RIT, Fire Attack, Back-up, Floor/s above if applicable, Ventilation, On Deck, Floor/s below if applicable, Evacuation, Medical, Rehab, Staging etc. If it becomes apparent that the crews on the fire floor will need to recycle/rehab, a Division may be established to coordinate this rotation. The crews that are assigned to the fire floor will then become the responsibility of that Division supervisor. Otherwise this accountability remains with Command. Water Supply/Hose Going Aloft (multi-story no standpipe) - The Attack Engine should secure their own hydrant and position near the best point of entry. If going aloft, a 2 1/2 inch line will be pulled dry up the stairway and positioned at the fire floor. Call for water when you are ready. The feedbags should also be brought up so they may be utilized if appropriate (initial attack or overhaul). Fire Attack should communicate their hose plan and their additional hose needs to the Back-up Group. Back-up will bring forward the additional hose needed to establish the back-up line according to the hose plan. Example: “Back-up from Fire Attack, we will be wyeing off of our 2 ½. You will need to bring your feedbags.” If it is a situation where there is a floor above the fire floor (no standpipe) - the crew assigned to the floor above should secure their own hydrant and pull their own 2 ½ up to their assigned floor. They should also bring their feedbags (plan to be self sufficient). 1st Floor (multi-story no standpipe) - If the fire is on the first floor of a multi-story low rise, you will have some options on hose selection and layout. The attack engine should still position next to the most appropriate entrance and secure their own hydrant. If you determine that your 1 3/4 inch line is big enough, your next decision is the length of hose required to reach the fire location. You could utilize your 200ft crosslay, your 300ft pre-connect or you may need to wye off your 2 1/2. However, if the 2 1/2 hose is the correct choice, pull it dry as far as you can before calling for water. The crew assigned to Back-up on the 1st floor will need to advance a line from the attack engine the same size or bigger. If the attack crew used a 2 1/2, the Back-up will need to bring theirs forward. The crew assigned to the floor above the fire will need to secure their own water supply and advance their 2 1/2 up the appropriate stairs. They should also bring their feedbags to utilize if appropriate. Going Aloft (multi-story with a standpipe) – The attack engine should position at the best point of entry, secure a water supply and support the FDC if possible (assign another engine to support the FDC if appropriate). High rise packs and feed bags will be utilized to develop a hose plan. Fire Attack will communicate any additional hose needs to the Back-up group before they ascend. The Back-up Group will bring the additional needed hose to support the hose plan. If Fire Attack does not communicate specific hose needs, back-up will bring their high rise packs and feed bags. Standpipe Usage - If a multi story low rise has a standpipe in which the attack crews will be utilizing (typically four story buildings), one of the first alarm engines needs to support the FDC. Crews working aloft would use their high rise hose packs and feedbags. Only use the High Rise in-line valve if you are utilizing 2 ½” hose with a smooth bore nozzle. Depending on the age/condition of the standpipe or the use of combination nozzles (feedbags), recommended flushing prior to FD use. Single Story Center Hallway - The attack engine should position near the best point of entry and secure a water supply. The officer should decide on the size of the line and the length required. This should be determined by the size of the fire, occupancy and fire load. The Back-up assignment will pull a line as big as or bigger than the attack line. Equipment - If the fire is located above the first floor and there is no standpipe, the attack crew should bring a fan, forcible entry tools, pike pole, TIC, 2 1/2 inch hose and feedbags. The fan should be placed at the entry to the stairwell started and turned away. All crew members going aloft will have full PPE. Crews will not be required to bring extra air bottles. Back-up will bring a fan to the fire floor (if IRIT did not), their tools, and the additional hose requested by Fire Attack. The crew assigned to the floor above will bring a fan to the base of the stairs, their tools, feed bags and lay their own 2 ½ up the stairs. If the fire is aloft and there is a standpipe, the attack crew should bring a fan, forcible entry tools, pike pole, TIC, high rise hose pack and feedbags. Other crews assigned to back-up and other upper floors should have the same equipment. Ventilation - vertical vs. horizontal - On single story buildings or fires located on the top floor of a low rise, vertical ventilation may be warranted. But for the most part, the combination of opening windows and placing fans will be our best chance at coordinated ventilation in these buildings. With the existence of breakable glass the windows may already be compromised upon our arrival and providing ventilation of the fire room. By adding sufficient air currents as we advance, we should be able to safely and effectively get hose streams in place to extinguish the fire. We must always have a ventilation strategy before we advance our fire attack (Vent-Enter-Search). However, ventilation must be coordinated as much as possible. We do not place fans until we have an exhaust opening and attack crews are ready. We do not open up the roof until attack teams are ready. Fire Attack will be responsible of ensuring ventilation is in place prior to entering an IDLH atmosphere. PPV will be accomplished by coordinating the assignment and communication of a truck company to open desired windows and requesting Back-up or IRIT to properly place additional fans. This requires communication and coordination. Our basic ventilation plan in a low rise building will include: Opening the appropriate windows to ventilate the fire Pressurizing the attack stairway with a fan placed at ground level Placing a fan on the fire floor to pressurize the hallway This operation will be coordinated between fire attack, IRIT/Back-up, vent group (exterior truck) and command. Utilities - The task of securing utilities should be given to one of the first alarm units.

11 Basic Center Hallway Attack
(overhead view) RIT OD FA BU Text Fire

12 Offensive Assignments Center Hallway
Fire Attack IRIT/RIT Back-up Ventilation Group - Possible Roof Division Floor/s Above fire (Division 2, 3 or 4) On Deck Floor/s Below fire (Division 3, 2 or 1) Evacuation/Rescue Medical Safety Rehab Offensive Assignments - Center Hallway Fire Attack - As with other offensive strategies the Fire Attack Group is advancing the hose line to extinguish the fire. This assignment can play out in two primary ways. First, if the initial officer is able to quickly locate the fire room and position their apparatus in the correct location, an Offensive - Fast Attack Strategy could be implemented. In this case, command would be mobile with their attack crew. When command is transferred they would be re-assigned Fire Attack Group. Another possibility would be - while the initial command officer is performing recon, they realize that another staged crew is in a better position to initiate Fire Attack. The correct action would be to stay in Command Mode and assign Fire Attack to the other crew. From this Command position you can begin to build the center hallway attack as additional crews arrive. After the BC’s arrival and the completion of the transfer of command, expect another assignment into the attack strategy. The Fire Attack Crew will be responsible to position their apparatus at the most appropriate access point, secure a water supply, coordinate hose plan (Fire Attack & Back-up), coordinate ventilation, advance a hoseline, extinguish the fire and conduct a primary search. If going aloft without a standpipe you will need to pull your 2 1/2 and bring your feedbags. If you have a standpipe, you could utilize your high rise packs and or feedbags. You will also need to place a fan at the point of entry of the stairwell, start it and turn it away. Other tools required will be: forcible entry, TIC, pike pole and hose straps. If you are pulling 2 1/2 up the stairwell, pull it dry and set it up before calling for water. Try to communicate your stairwell and hose strategy early so that other incoming officers can begin to plan how they will get hose advanced into the building. Example: “Control from Marks Command. We will be utilizing the east stairs. There is no standpipe. We will be advancing our 2 1/2 up the stairs. Back-up, you will need to pull your 2 ½ up the stairs to back us up.” Also, communicate your hose and nozzle selection to the engineer to ensure proper pumping pressures. Prior to making entry into the hallway, Fire Attack must ensure ventilation is coordinated and in place. Ensure you have an exhaust opening in the fire room, a fan should be pressuring the attack stairway, and a fan should be in place to pressurize the hallway. If the hallway was built correctly to code you should have decent conditions in this corridor during the early stages of the incident. The walls and self closing doors should keep the majority of smoke and fire contained to the fire room or venting out of the window to the exterior. Under these circumstances your advance should be rather uneventful. However, if the fire was able to breach the door or wall assembly and enter the hallway, the conditions could be severe. You may not be able to initially advance and be forced to fight the fire from the stairwell door. Most importantly, be ready when you open the door to the hallway. As you advance, confirm that you do not have fire over your head or behind you. Get to the fire room quickly to obtain Knockdown. That is when most of our problems go away. IRIT/RIT – When crews are operating inside a structure we will meet SNFO SOP - 03 (2-in-2 out, IRIT, RIT) requirements. 2-in 2-out or IRIT may be utilized initially, but a full RIT will be required to be assigned from the first alarm. 2-in 2-out – This is the first (lowest) level of protection for a single crew operating in an IDLH atmosphere. This provides the opportunity for the initial company (4-persons) to be pro-active if conditions warrant. The initial company officer can meet the requirement of 2-in 2-out by conducting the fire attack with one of their firefighters (2-in) while the other firefighter and engineer are outside (2-out). The function of the 2-out (Standby Team) is to maintain a constant awareness of the number and identity of members operating in the hazard area, their location, function, and time of entry. The Standby Team shall assemble tools and equipment that may assist the entry team, and be prepared to make an initial rescue attempt if needed. The firefighter on the Standby Team will be fully turned out with SCBA. The engineer on the Standby Team shall have PPE and SCBA readily available (not in a bag or compartment). The 2-out (Standby Team) will become “Engine XX crew” for communications. If the 2-out crew needs to deploy for firefighter rescue, they will become IRIT. Example: “Control, Engine 83 crew will be deploying as IRIT to perform rescue.” IRIT – A rescue crew may be assigned to the function of IRIT during the initial phases of the operation. The primary purpose of this assignment is to track resources deployed into the IDLH atmosphere, monitor changing conditions, and be prepared to initiate the process of rescuing a distressed firefighter. This position requires a RIT pack, forcible entry tools, and an additional hose line. PPE and SCBA are to be donned for immediate deployment. IRIT can be utilized for single function tasks such as securing utilities or performing recon provided that it would not take them away from their primary focus, or remove them too far from the point of entry. As soon as the benchmark of “Personnel in the Structure” is transmitted, the IRIT crew should position at or near the point of entry. IRIT is the second level of protection for crews operating in an IDLH. Although it provides more protection than 2-in 2-out, Command shall upgrade to a full RIT as soon as a company is available. RIT – The 4 person RIT crew will be responsible for fully implementing the RIT function. A member should be assigned to the Entry Attendant position and obtain a briefing from command. The RIT tarp should be deployed with any additional tools and equipment that may be necessary for the building type (additional RIT packs, TIC, Search/utility rope, lights, saws, ladders, etc). RIT should provide a secondary egress and prepare the building for rescue. It may be necessary to request additional crews to assist in removing bars from windows and doors. RIT is the highest level of protection for crews operating in an IDLH. A RIT will be assigned from the first alarm. Back-up - The primary responsibility of the back-up group will be to protect the egress of Fire Attack. Back-up will establish a second hoseline in accordance with the hose plan. They will pull a line as big as or bigger than the Attack Group. Back-up should try communicate with Fire Attack prior to ascending, in order to insure they are bringing the correct hose and equipment. They will follow the advance of the Fire Attack Group and position themselves approximately 2/3 up their line. Back-up should notify Fire Attack when they are in position. Back-up should bring an additional fan forward to the fire floor (unless it has already been placed). Back-up should assign a member to the fan to ensure it is not moved. Other tools required will be: forcible entry, TIC, pike pole and hose straps. Ventilation Group/Roof Division - Because our ventilation strategy on these structures will typically consist of a combination of opening windows and placing fans, a Ventilation Group should be assigned. This assignment would generally be given to the truck company. The truck is best equipped to access windows on all levels and has additional fans. The overall responsibility of the Vent group will be to create and maintain the movement of smoke/heat away from possible victims and Fire Attack. The first arriving truck company will be responsible for exterior operational needs. They should position so they can open the appropriate windows for ventilation, as-well-as access the largest possible “scrub” area. The scrub area is the part of the building that the truck could possibly access to accomplish other tactical needs including: rescue, exterior fire streams, additional hose lines, additional equipment, additional personnel, etc. A minimum of 2 personnel will be inside the bucket in order to safely accomplish these tasks. The Ventilation Group should initially concentrate on coordinating ventilation with fire attack. If the windows in the fire room have not already self vented, the vent group should open them when the Fire Attack Group is ready. Vent Group should confirm that the proper PPV fans are in place. IRIT and Back-up will assist with placement of the initial fans. The goal is to move the smoke and heat where we want it to go. The 2nd truck or another crew may be assigned to vent group in order to help complete these goals. If we are presented with a fire in a building with a center hallway that is single story, or the top floor of a multi-story building, vertical ventilation may be our best tactic and a Roof Division would be assigned. Roof Division should position themselves so that they can make access on good roof. They would then coordinate vertical ventilation with Fire Attack. If fans and open windows will still be utilized for ventilation in the initial phases of fire attack, other personnel will need to be given these tasks since the truck will be committed to the roof (just like a house fire). Floor/s Above fire (Division 2, 3 or 4) - After assigning adequate resources to the fire floor our next priority will be any floors above the fire - starting with the floor immediately above. This assignment will typically be a Division. The primary responsibility of the floor above will be to conduct search and evacuation of any occupants and stop any extension of the fire. The engine company assigned to the floor above should secure their own hydrant and position near the most appropriate point of entry. If there is not a standpipe, pull the 2 1/2 up the stairway. If a standpipe is present, the high rise pack (or feedbags) can be utilized. You should also bring your feedbags, forcible entry tools, pike pole, TIC, and hose straps. Plan to be self sufficient. If you have remaining occupants that require evacuation, try to utilize the stairwell that is not being used for fire attack. Communicate this information to command. Notify Command if you become involved in a fire fight in your Division. Request any resources you may need to manage your Division. Remember, you are operating above the fire. Ensure that the floor is stable below your feet (sound, TIC, etc). Begin your operations at the most severely threatened rooms and work your way out. On Deck - The On Deck crew should have all of their equipment and be staged together near the attack engine, unless told otherwise. This crew should be ready to immediately assist wherever needed: replace or support any existing assignment or provide for additional critical needs. Floor/s below fire (Division 3, 2 or 1) - This assignment will generally be a Division. The responsibility of this assignment is to ensure evacuation, check for extension and provide any critical salvage needs. The floors below the fire will typically be lower on our priority list during the initial phases of this incident. There may be unforeseen situations where we must address them earlier but our attention will most likely be on the fire floor and above until we gain control of the situation or receive additional resources. Evacuation/Rescue - These are functional assignments that are specific to the objective assigned. Evacuation Group will be responsible to remove any remaining occupants out of the building. Start on the floor above the fire and move up. Finally clear the floor/s below the fire. Try to utilize a stairwell that is not being used by fire attack. A Rescue Group could be assigned to conduct a specific rescue operation in the building. Depending on the situation, we may need to assign an evacuation group or rescue group from the first alarm. Medical - One of the initial rescues should be assigned Medical Group. Medical Group is responsible for the treatment of the injured or sick. Safety - Whenever the Henderson Fire Department responds to an incident, we will adhere to the Incident Safety Officer System EM-07. The Incident Safety Officer (ISO) is integrated into our Incident Management System automatically. The first arriving officer (IC#1) is responsible for the safety function until command is transferred or they assign it to another officer. If a command officer (BC) arrives and assumes command (IC#2) after the transfer process, they will also assume the ISO responsibilities. The second arriving command officer will become the Deputy IC and act as the Incident Safety Officer. If the incident continues to expand, the IC may assign the ISO responsibilities away from the Deputy IC to another officer. The IC will also assign Assistant Incident Safety Officers (AISO) where needed. These AISO’s will work under the ISO. Rehab - Any working structure fire will have some form of rehab established. One of the responding rescues will be given this assignment. An area must be designated for crews to re-hydrate, rest, and be evaluated. On smaller incidents, one rescue crew should be able to handle this responsibility. Larger more extensive operations, which utilize multiple crews, should have a formal rehab established. Air Resource 86 should be requested to accommodate this need. The IC will ensure that personnel are following SNFO-08 Rehabilitation procedures. Rehab paperwork will be delivered to the IC(BC).

13 Other Offensive Tactics
Transitional Tactic Enter through adjacent room Our primary goal in developing attack strategies for the common buildings in our community is to apply a standard action to a standard condition to obtain a standard outcome. But we are also aware that in our world the incident does not always cooperate with our plans. It is important to consider other tactical possibilities that could be applied if our standard approach is not practical. Transitional Tactic - The transitional tactic should be a tool to consider when you are setting up an offensive attack and you can effectively apply water to the fire from the exterior. Many times this tactic can darken down the fire and eliminate a substantial amount of the energy. This can buy us some time as we get our attack lines into position. Straight streams should be utilized. Water will only be applied for several seconds. We do not want to blow through walls or doors that are holding the fire within a compartment. Water application from the exterior should not be allowed when attack crews are advancing. Enter through adjacent room - Another effective tactic that has been used successfully in these types of buildings is to make entry into an adjacent room. Two primary situations where this might be the tactic of choice is when we are unable to advance down a long hallway (because of smoke/heat), or if our hose will not reach the involved room. Fire Attack would enter an adjacent room through a window and advance the attack line out into the hall to the fire room. The windows to the fire room will need to be opened up to provide ventilation. Obviously if the fire is above grade, ladders will need to placed and utilized for entry/advance.

14 Defensive Tactics Exterior Attack Exposure Protection Big Water
Collapse Zones An initial defensive strategy declaration would be unusual in these occupancies. Most of these buildings are large and many are occupied 24/7. Typically our first units will arrive within the first minutes. At this point there will be savable lives and a large amount of undamaged property. However, if we arrive to a vacant low rise building with a significant fire, our risk benefit evaluation may warrant a defensive strategy. Example: A low rise office building outside of business hours. Obviously, when conditions go beyond interior operational capability the IC must conduct defensive operations outside the hazard area. A defensive strategy is chosen when the situation evaluation determines that there is nothing savable in the involved structure, the intensity of the fire is too great, or adequate resources are not available to coordinate an offensive attack. Exterior Attack - By definition, a defensive strategy will be performed from the outside. We will not be placing crews inside and a primary search will not be conducted. Exposure Protection - The overall goal of the defensive strategy will be to contain the fire to the building or origin. We will prioritize exposures and place exterior fire streams in position to protect them. Trucks will need to be strategically positioned and supplied. Big water - Master streams and larger diameter hose lines will be the tools of choice. Multiple hydrants should be secured to ensure adequate water supply. Note: When securing additional hydrants (2nd or more), consider establishing a relay pumping operation. It is advised for secondary hydrants that are more than 200 feet away and involve 20 feet or more of increased elevation to the scene. Collapse Zones - Collapse zones will be established (1 1/2 times the height) and strictly managed. Big water - Master streams and larger diameter hose lines will be the tools of choice. Multiple hydrants should be secured to ensure adequate water supply. Note: When securing additional hydrants (2nd or more), consider establishing a relay pumping operation. It is advised for secondary hydrants that are more than 200 feet away and involve 20 feet or more of increased elevation to the scene.

15 Defensive Assignments
Exterior Divisions - Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta Staging Medical Rahab Safety Possible Water Supply Possible PIO Exterior Divisions - Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta: We will assign the appropriate exterior divisions to surround the fire. Officers assigned to supervise these divisions will be responsible for the personnel, accountability, resources and operations within their geographical area. If the fire extends into other buildings in the area we may use North, South, East & West Divisions. Staging - This large commercial fire will require multiple alarms. Level two staging will be established and given a radio channel and location. A second alarm crew will be assigned this responsibility. Medical - One of the first alarm rescues will be assigned to Medical Group. Safety – See Safety in Offensive Assignments Rehab - This will be a long extended event. A formal rehab will be established. Typically this assignment will be given to one of the initial rescues. The light and air unit should be requested through the IC. (See Rehab in Offensive Assignments) Possible Water Supply - Whenever we are conducting a large defensive operation we should consider the need to bring in additional water supply from outside the immediate area. This evolution will take time and resources to effectively complete. Multiple engines and long hose lays will be required. Note: When securing additional hydrants (2nd or more), consider establishing a relay pumping operation. It is advised for secondary hydrants that are more than 200 feet away and involve 20 feet or more of increased elevation to the scene. Possible PIO - A large fire at a low rise occupancy will be a media event. Command should be proactive at assigning a PIO to manage and communicate with the media.

16 Changing Strategy Offensive to Defensive Withdraw Abandon the Building
Defensive to Offensive Evacuation Offensive to Defensive - Switching from offensive to a defensive strategy can be confusing and dangerous. This transition is basically a retreat from offensive positions. The mere fact that you are proceeding down this road is proof that things are not progressing well. Either the extent of the fire prohibits further interior operations or the structure has become unsafe to operate in. If you make the decision to change from an offensive to defensive strategy you must be sure that it is communicated effectively to all operating crews. All crews must be out of the structure before defensive tactics are undertaken. “Emergency Traffic” will be utilized for any change of strategy. It will also be used for withdraw or abandon orders. Withdraw Order – Upon the receipt of an emergency traffic withdraw order, the company officer shall acknowledge the withdraw order, assemble their crew and promptly exit to a safe location. A withdraw should be an organized rapid exit. Once an officer is outside with their crew, they should insure everyone is accounted for and report a PAR to command. Abandon the Building – Abandon the Building order, is intended for use when the immediate exit of interior personnel is paramount to safety. Failure to respond could result in serious injury or death. Emergency Traffic, Abandon the Building order will be given over the radio. Dispatch will sound an “abandon the building" tone over the radio (high low tone for 5 sec.). All Henderson Fire Dept. apparatus will sound their horns for 15 seconds. Abandon the building will be given where there is potential for: Building collapse Possible Explosion Other hazardous conditions that dictate an immediate change Upon notification of the “Abandon the Building Order”, crews will immediately: exit to a safe area, conduct a PAR, and report the location and status of crew. Defensive to Offensive – Changing from a defensive to an offensive strategy typically means you arrived to a significant fire but have achieved a successful knockdown. The choice is made to move forward to extinguish the remaining hot spots and begin overhaul. This decision must be made with great caution. Risk to benefit must be determined and an action plan should be clearly communicated before proceeding. The structural integrity of the building must be considered in the planning process. A large fire combined with substantial water application can cause considerable damage to a structure. After achieving a knockdown at a defensive fire, command should stop the operation, develop a plan, and clearly communicate the plan prior to moving forward. Evacuation – Evacuation is an assignment to clear remaining occupants from unsafe areas.

17 Low-Rise Situation Evaluation
Building Fire Occupancy Life Hazard Arrangement Resources Action Special Circumstances Low-Rise Situation Evaluation Building – Lightweight construction, compartmentalized (should not initially have catastrophic roof collapse), One hour rating between rooms and hallway, void space in floor/ceiling assembly (between floors), open attic above top floor (may have sprinklers in attic space), lightweight truss roof, doors & windows in rooms, sprinkler system with FDC, possible standpipe with fire pump (4 story) Fire - Size (how much GPM required), extent (% of structure), location, stage (incipient, free burning, flashover), smoke production, extension into other rooms/floors Occupancy – Small hotels or businesses, should generally be class “A” combustibles Life Hazard – Could be substantial if a small hotel, may be minimal if it is a business after hours. Arrangement – Apparatus positioning may be challenging, access can be limited to a few ground level entrances, typically at least 2 stairwells and one elevator, exposure problems with fire moving vertically to other floors Resources – 1st alarm – confirm a 5th engine and 2nd truck was on initial dispatch, 2nd alarm if confirmed fire Action – Things that need to get done, stage of operation (rescue, fire control, incident stabilization, property conservation), command mode, strategy & develop IAP Special Circumstances - Time of day, day of week, weather 17

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