3II. The Triumph of Democracy Property and DemocracyProperty requirements for voting were eliminated by statesThe Dorr WarRhode Island was an exceptionWage earners organized the People’s Convention in 1841Elected Thomas Dorr
4II. The Triumph of Democracy (con’t) Democracy in AmericaBy 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men were eligible to voteDemocratic political institutions came to define the nation’s sense of its own identityTocqueville identified democracy as an essential attribute of American freedomThe term “citizen” in America had become synonymous with the right to voteAs with the market revolution, women and blacks were barred from full democracyThey were denied on the basis of natural incapacity
5II. The Triumph of Democracy (con’t) Women and the Public SphereRise of the mass circulation “penny press”The growth of the reading public opened the door for the rise of a new generation of women writersA Racial DemocracyDespite increased democracy in America, blacks were seen as a group apartBlacks were often portrayed as stereotypesBlacks were not allowed to vote in most statesIn effect, race had replaced class as the boundary that separated those American men who were entitled to enjoy political freedom from those who were not
6III. Nationalism and Its Discontents The American SystemA new manufacturing sector emerged from the War of 1812 and many believed that it was necessary complement to the agricultural sector for national growthIn 1815 President James Madison put forward a blueprint for government-promoted economic development that came to be known as the American Systemnew national banktariffsfederal financing for better roads and canals
7III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) President Madison came to believe that a constitutional amendment was necessary for the government to build roads and canalsBanks and MoneyThe Second Bank of the United States was a profit-making corporation that served the governmentLocal banks promoted economic growthLocal banks printed moneyValue of paper currency fluctuated wildlyBank of the United States was supposed to prevent the over-issuance of money
8III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) The Panic of 1819The Bank of the United States participated in a speculative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812 endedEarly in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels, the economic bubble burstThe Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony of the previous yearsAmericans continued to distrust banksThe Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the United States was constitutionalMaryland could not tax the bank
9III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) The Missouri ControversyJames Monroe’s two terms as president were characterized by the absence of two-party competitionThe absence of political party disputes was replaced by sectional disputesMissouri petitioned for statehood in 1819Debate arose over slaveryMissouri Compromise was adopted by Congress in 1820Henry Clay engineered a second Missouri Compromise
10III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) Northern Republicans did not want slavery to expand for political reasonsThe Missouri debate highlighted that the westward expansion of slavery was a passionate topic and would prove to be a fatal issue
11IV. Nation, Section, and Party The Monroe DoctrineBetween 1810 and 1822, Spain’s Latin American colonies rose in rebellion and established a series of independent nationsIn 1822, the Monroe administration became the first government to extend diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics
12IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) Fearing that Spain would try to regain its colonies, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams drafted the Monroe DoctrineNo more European colonization of the New WorldThe United States would abstain from European affairsNo re-colonization
13IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) The Election of 1824Andrew Jackson was the only candidate in the 1824 election to have national appealNone of the four candidates received a majority of the electoral votesFell to the House of RepresentativesHenry Clay supported John Quincy AdamsClay’s “corrupt bargain” gave Adams the White HouseDemocratic partyWhig party
14IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) The Nationalism of John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams enjoyed one of the most distinguished pre-presidential careers of any American presidentAdams had a clear vision of national greatnessSupported the American systemWished to enhance American influence in the Western Hemisphere
15IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) Adams held a view of federal power far more expansive than most of his contemporariesStated that “liberty is power”His plans alarmed many and his vision would not be fulfilled until the twentieth centuryMartin Van Buren and the Democratic PartyAdams’s program handed his political rivals a powerful weaponindividual libertystates rightslimited government
16IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) Martin Van Buren viewed political party competition as a necessary and positive influence to achieve national unityThe Election of 1828By 1828, Van Buren had established the political apparatus of the Democratic partyAndrew Jackson campaigned against John Quincy Adams in 1828Victory went to Jackson and American politics had been transformed
17V. The Age of Jackson The Party System Democrats and Whigs Politics had become a spectacleParty machines emerged“spoils system”National conventions chose candidatesDemocrats and WhigsDemocrats and Whigs approached issues that emerged from the market revolution differentlyDemocrats favored nongovernment intervention in the economyWhigs supported government promotion of the economy
18V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) Public and Private FreedomThe party battles of the Jacksonian era reflected the clash between “public” and “private” definitions of American freedom and their relationship to governmental powerDemocrats supported a weak federal government, championing individual and states’ rightsReduced expendituresReduced tariffsAbolished the national bank
19V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) Democrats opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on societyWhigs believed that a strong federal government was necessary to promote libertyWhigs argued that the role of government was to promote the welfare of the peopleThe Nullification CrisisJackson’s first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state lawTariff of 1828
20V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal governmentJohn C. Calhoun emerged as the leading theorist of nullificationExposition and protestStates created the ConstitutionDaniel Webster argued that the people, not the states, created the ConstitutionCalhoun and Jackson disagreed about the meaning of liberty and union and nullificationCalhoun left the Democratic party for the Whigs
21V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) Indian RemovalThe expansion of cotton and slavery forced the relocation of IndiansIndian Removal Act of 1830Five Civilized TribesThe law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that “civilized” Indians could be assimilated into the American populationThe Cherokees went to court to protect their rightsCherokee Nation v. GeorgiaWorcester v. Georgia
22V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) John Ross led Cherokee resistanceTrail of TearsThe Seminoles fought a war against removalWilliam Apess appealed for harmony between white Americans and Indians
23VI. The Bank War and After Biddle’s BankThe Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolutionHeading the Bank was Nicholas Biddle of PennsylvaniaJackson distrusted the bankBiddle’s bank threatened Jackson’s reelectionJackson vetoed a bill to renew the Bank’s charter
24VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) The Pet Banks and the EconomyBoth “soft money” advocates and “hard money” advocates supported Jackson’s vetoJackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the National Bank and their deposit in local banks“pet banks”Roger TaneyPrices rose dramatically but “real wages” declined
25VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) The Panic of 1837By 1836 gold or silver was required by the American government and the Bank of England for paymentsWith cotton exports declining, the United States suffered a panic in 1837 and a depression until 1843Martin Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury to deal with the crisisThe Independent Treasury split the Democratic partyCalhoun went back to the Democrats
26VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) The Election of 1840The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840Harrison was promoted as the “log cabin” candidateRunning mate was John TylerSelling candidates in campaigns was as important as the platform for which they stoodHis AccidencyHarrison died a month after taking officeTyler vetoed measures to enact the American System
32fig10_01.jpgPages 344–45: Stump Speaking. In this painting from the 1850s, George Caleb Bingham depicts a candidate in a county election addressing a group of voters, an illustration of grassroots democracy in action. One of the listeners appears about to question or challenge the speaker. A founder of the Whig Party in Missouri, Bingham himself ran for office several times and was elected to the Missouri legislature in 1848.Credit: The Saint Louis Art Museum, Gift of Bank of America.
33fig10_02.jpgPage 347: An anti-Jackson cartoon from 1832 portrays Andrew Jackson as an aspiring monarch, wielding the veto power while trampling on the Constitution.Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
34fig10_05.jpgPage 351: The American Women’s Home, a guide to domestic life by the sisters Catharine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Even though works like this were meant to instruct middle-class women on how to meet their domestic responsibilities, their popularity allowed talented women to take on a new public role as writers.Credit: General Research Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation.
35fig10_07.jpgPage 353: An image from a broadside from the campaign of 1824, promoting the American System of government-sponsored economic development. The illustrations represent industry, commerce, and agriculture. The ship at the center is named the John Quincy Adams. Its flag, "No Colonial Subjection," suggests that without a balanced economy, the United States will remain economically dependent on Great Britain.Credit: Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division Washington, LC-USZ
36fig10_08.jpgPage 362: Andrew Jackson, in a campaign portrait from The text, referring to his victory at the Battle of New Orleans in 1814, reads, "Protector and defender of beauty and booty.Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ
37fig10_04.jpgPage 366: County Election, another painting by George Caleb Bingham depicting American democracy in action. In this 1852 work, a voter takes an oath while party workers dispense liquor, seek to persuade voters, and keep track of who has cast abllots. The banner reads, "The Will of the People the Supreme Law." The slogan is meant to be ironic. Bingham includes a number of Democratic politicians he accused of cheating him in a recent election.Credit: The Saint Louis Art Museum.
38fig10_10.jpgPage 368: A cartoon published in 1833, at the height of the nullificiation controversy, shows John C. Calhoun climbing steps, including those marked "nullification," "treason," and "civil war," toward the goal of "despotism." He is flanked by James H. Hammond and Robert Y. Hayne, two of South Carolina's political leaders. On the right, President Jackson threatens to hang them.Credit: Library of Congress.
39fig10_11.jpgPage 369: An 1834 print portrays the United States as a Temple of Liberty. At the center, a figure of liberty rises from the flames, holding the Bill of Rights and a staff with a liberty cap. Justice and Minerva (Roman goddess of war and wisdom) flank the temple, above which flies a banner, "The Union Must and Shall be Preserved.”Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division Washington, LC-USZ
40fig10_13.jpgPage 371 top: Cherokee Phoenix, the first Native American newspaper. Founded in 1828 at New Echota, captial of the Cherokee Nation in Georgia, it was printed in English and in a recently devised Cherokee alphabet.Credit: Warder Collection.
41fig10_16.jpgPage 374: The Downfall of Mother Bank, a Democratic cartoon celebrating the destruction of the Second Bank of the United States. President Jackson topples the building by brandishing his order removing federal funds from the Bank. Led by Nicholas Biddle, with the head of a demon, the Bank's corrupt supporters flee, among them Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and newspaper editors allegedly paid by the institution.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division Washington, LC-USZ
42fig10_17.jpgPage 376: The Times, an 1837 engraving that blames Andrew Jackson's policies for the economic depression. The Custom House is idle, while next door a bank is mobbed by worried depistors. Beneath Jackson's hat, spectacles, and clay pipe (with the ironic word "glory"), images of hardship abound.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division Washington, LC-USZ
43fig10_18.jpgPage 378: A Whig campaign publication illustrates the way the party promoted its 1840 presidential candidate, William Henry Harrison, as a humble, cider-drinking common man—an image far removed from the wealthy Harrison's actual social status.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
45Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 10W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 10Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner