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The Earth and Its Peoples 3 rd edition Chapter 30 The Collapse of the Old Order, Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki, 1945 When this photo of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki was taken on August 9, 1945, from an observation plane 6 miles up, 35,000 people on the ground had died. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Atomic bombing of Nagasaki, 1945 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
D-Day 1944 During the Normandy Invasions at Omaha Beach, June 6, 1944, airborne paratroopers landed behind German coastal fortifications around midnight, and American and British forces hit several beaches at daybreak as Allied ships and bombers provided cover. American troops secured full control of Omaha Beach by nightfall, but at a price of 3,000 casualties. Allied air power prevented the Germans from bringing up reserves and counterattacking. (National Archives) D-Day 1944 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Families marched out of Warsaw Ghetto This photo captures the terrible inhumanity of Nazi racism. German soldiers are forcing frightened and bewildered families from their homes in the soon-to-be-destroyed Warsaw Ghetto, in Poland, for deportation to concentration camps. There they face murder in the gas chambers. (Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Families marched out of Warsaw Ghetto Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Female guards remove bodies When Allied forces entered Germany in 1945, they found not only camp guards and their prisoners but also enormous numbers of corpses. This photograph shows female guards at Bergen-Belsen, one of the most infamous concentration camps, dumping the bodies of Holocaust victims into a mass grave. (Wide World Photos) Female guards remove bodies Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"For the Motherland's Sake, Go Forward" Joining the historic Russian warrior and the young Soviet soldier in the common cause, this poster--For the Motherland's Sake, Go Forward, Heroes--portrays the defense of the nation as a sacred mission and illustrates the way Soviet leaders successfully appealed to Russian nationalism during the war. (Library of Congress) "For the Motherland's Sake, Go Forward" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Forced labor camp This rare photo from about 1933 shows the reality of deported peasants and other political prisoners building the Stalin-White Sea Canal in far northern Russia, with their bare hands and under the most dehumanizing conditions. In books and plays Stalin's followers praised the project as a model for the regeneration of "reactionaries" and "kulak exploiters" through the joys of socialist work. (David King Collection) Forced labor camp Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
German Dive-Bombers over Poland This German painting depicts a German ME-100 fighter plane attacking a Soviet troops convoy on the Eastern Front. (akg-images) German Dive-Bombers over Poland Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Germany absorbs Austria With the defeat and dismemberment of the Habsburg Empire, Austria was left a small, landlocked country after World War I. Most Austrians would have welcomed unification with Germany, but the peacemakers specifically prohibited any such step. As it happened, Austria was unified with Germany on Hitler's terms with the Anschluss of March Here Austrians look on as German troops march into Salzburg. (Hulton Archives/Getty Images) Germany absorbs Austria Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Grosz, Draussen und Drinnen George Grosz (German painter and graphic artist, ) developed a bitter, savagely satiric style to express the disillusionment of his post-World War I generation. In this detail from his painting Draussen und Drinnen (Outside and Inside) he captures the uncertainty and anxiety of the 1920s. (akg-images) Grosz, Draussen und Drinnen Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Hitler in opposition Adolf Hitler ( ) returns the salute of his Brown Shirts in this photograph from the third party day rally in Nuremberg in The Brown Shirts formed a private army within the Nazi movement, and their uniforms, marches, salutes, and vandalism helped keep Hitler in the public eye in the 1920s. (Courtesy, Bison Books, London) Hitler in opposition Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Japanese in Shanghai, 1937 The rise of Chinese nationalism challenged the control that Japan exercised over Manchuria through Chinese warlords. In 1937 the Japanese military and the ultranationalists decided to use a minor incident near Beijing as a pretext for a general attack. The Nationalist government joined in a united front with the Communists and fought hard to halt the Japanese. But Shanghai, China's leading port, fell to the invading Japanese in November of that year. These jubilant infantry troops have successfully stormed the city's North Station. In China, the Japanese won the battles but they could not win the war. (Ullstein Bilderdienst) Japanese in Shanghai, 1937 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Mao on Long March, 1933 Mao Zedong ( ) joined the Communist Party in the early 1920s and soon became one of its leaders. In , pursued by the Guomindang army, Mao Zedong led his rag-tag army of Communist guerrillas on a Long March (6,000 miles in one year) across the rugged mountains of southern and western China. Of the 100,000 Communists who left Bangxi in October 1934, only 8,000-10,000 reached Shaanxi a year later. In this romanticized painting, young Mao is speaking to a group of soldiers in spotless uniforms who look up at him with worshipful expressions. (Library of Congress) Mao on Long March, 1933 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Milkman in London Adolf Hitler believed that his relentless terror bombing of London--the "blitz"--could break the will of the British people in He was wrong. The blitz caused enormous destruction, but Londoners went about their business with courage and calm determination, as this unforgettable image of a milkman in the rubble suggests. (Corbis) Milkman in London Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Mussolini In this photo, Benito Mussolini--the founder of fascism--is shown with other fascist leaders in 1922, as he becomes prime minister of Italy. Standing at Mussolini's right (with beard) is Italo Belbo, later a pioneering aviator and fascist Italy's air force minister. (Corbis) Mussolini Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"No pasaran" poster, Spanish Civil War "No pasaran!" (They shall not pass)," proclaimed the charismatic Spanish communist Dolores Ibarruri ( ), whose impassioned speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire the heroic defense of Madrid during the civil war that gripped Spain during the later 1930s. This poster depicts Spanish soldiers defending the democratic republic against the antidemocratic nationalists seeking to overthrow it. (Biblioteca Nacional Madrid) "No pasaran" poster, Spanish Civil War Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Picasso, Guernica Pablo Picasso ( ) was probably the most significant artist of the early twentieth century. For more than seventy years, he personified the individuality, freedom, and revolutionary creativity of the modern arts. His passionate involvement in his times infuses his immense painting Guernica, often considered his greatest work. Painted for the Spanish pavilion at the Paris International Exhibition in 1937, this mural, with its mournful white, black, and blue colors, was inspired by the devastation of Guernica by fascist planes in a single night. (Museo del Prado/Giraudon/Art Resource, NY (c) Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris) Picasso, Guernica Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Stalin and workers march to victory Stalin rarely appeared in public, but posters singing his praises were everywhere. Here the mighty ruler is almost one of the boys, as he and Soviet workers march to victory. "Our program is realistic," Stalin proclaims on the poster, "because it is you and me working together." (David King Collection) Stalin and workers march to victory Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Stalingrad, November 1942 From September 1942 until the German surrender early in February 1943, Stalingrad, on the Volga River, saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War II. The Soviet victory, in the face of incredible casualties, was arguably the turning point in the war in Europe. (Sovfoto/Eastfoto) Stalingrad, November 1942 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Still of Nuremburg This still is from an extraordinary illustration of the Nazi period: Triumph of the Will, a documentary film on the sixth Nazi Party rally, which took place September 4-10, 1934, in the historic city of Nuremberg. Directed by a talented young woman, Leni Riefenstahl ( ), Triumph of the Will has long been recognized as one of the most compelling propaganda films ever made. (Museum of Modern Art Film Stills Archive) Still of Nuremburg Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"There's No Way Like the American Way" In this classic 1930s photograph, Life magazine photographer Margaret Bourke-White ( ) captured the contrast between advertisers' views of the ideal American family and the reality of mass poverty in a land of plenty, in this case a line of Louisville flood victims, Bourke-White was one of the most important photographers of the twentieth century. She was a woman doing a man's job, in a man's world, from the foundries of Cleveland to the battlefields of World War II. (TimePix/Getty Images) "There's No Way Like the American Way" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"This is Nazi brutality" Ben Shahn ( ) is recognized as a master of social realist art. Born in Lithuania, he lived in America most of his life. He was employed in the Office of War Information, but only two of his designs were used. Lidice, in Central Bohemia, was destroyed on June 10, 1942, as a reprisal for the assassination of a German gauleiter (provincial governor). It has been rebuilt as a memorial. The visual force of Shahn's poster depends partly on the disturbing image of a hooded figure but also on the angularity of the background and the impersonality of the strips of ticker tape. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) "This is Nazi brutality" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Growth of Nazi Germany The Growth of Nazi Germany Until March 1939, Hitler brought ethnic Germans into the Nazi state; then he turned on the Slavic peoples he had always hated. He stripped Czechoslovakia of its independence and prepared for an attack on Poland in September (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: World War II in Europe World War II in Europe This map shows the extent of Hitler's empire at its height, before the Battle of Stalingrad in late 1942 and the subsequent advances of the Allies until Germany surrendered on May 7, (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: World War II in the Pacific World War II in the Pacific Japanese forces overran an enormous amount of territory in 1942, which the Allies slowly recaptured in a long, bitter struggle. As this map shows, Japan still held a large Asian empire in August 1945, when the unprecedented devastation of atomic warfare suddenly forced it to surrender. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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