Presentation on theme: "Aggression and Conflicts Leading to World War II Text pages ;"— Presentation transcript:
1 Aggression and Conflicts Leading to World War II Text pages 763-764; 809-813 SSWH17 The student will be able to identify the major political and economic factors that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II.e. Describe the nature of totalitarianism and the police state that existed in Russia, Germany, and Italy and how they differ from authoritarian governments.f. Explain the aggression and conflict leading to World War II in Europe and Asia; include the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, the Spanish Civil War, the rape of Nanjing in China, and the German annexation of the Sudetenland.
2 Authoritarian States versus Totalitarian States A number of states were authoritarian, but not totalitarian.Used police powers but did not strive to create a new mass society—rather they sought to preserve the existing social orderParticularly in Eastern Europe, such as Austria, Poland, Ukraine, etc… they had tried democracy but failed to maintain and authoritarian governments emerged
3 Totalitarianism & the Police State Commonly applied to Fascist & Communist regimesPolice operate without constraint of laws & regulationsPursuit of state’s goal means overthrowing all old political & social institutionsPolice state- restrictions on mobility, freedom to express political or other views, which are subject to police monitoringCommon in Russia under Stalin, Germany under Hitler, and Italy under Mussolini
5 Steps Toward WarMarch 9, Hitler announces creation of a new air forceMarch Military draft reinstated expanding army from 100,000 to 550,000 – a direct violation of the Treaty of VersaillesMarch 7, 1936– sent troops into the demilitarized zone of the RhinelandBeginning of appeasement – policy based on the ideas of satisfying reasonable demands to keep peace
8 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia Mussolini had long dreamed of a new Roman Empire in the MediterraneanOctober 1935 invaded EthiopiaAngered by French & British opposition, Mussolini welcomed Hitler’s supportNovember 1936 Signed Rome-Berlin Axis –an alliance with Germany
9 Spanish Civil WarGeneral Francisco Franco led Spanish military forces to revolt against the democratic government in 1936.Brutal & Bloody Civil WarFascist regimes of Italy & Germany aided FrancoHitler used as opportunity to test his new weaponsIn April 1937, German bombers destroyed Guernica which has been immortalized in the painting by Pablo Picasso
11 Spanish Civil War Continued… Soviet Union aided the Spanish republican governmentFranco captured Madrid in 1939 and established a dictatorshipBecause he favored traditional groups (businesspeople, landowners, clergy) and did not try to create a new social order, his regime is considered authoritarian rather than totalitarian
12 Rape of NanjingPeriod of wartime atrocities committed by Japanese forces in the Chinese capital of Nanjing during a six week period December January 1938Estimated 200,000 people killedAtrocities included murdering civilians & soldiers, beating civilians, setting fire to homes, and raping women before they murdered themSurvivors describe the atrocities as killing for sport – finding new & creative ways to kill people including burial alive & decapitation
14 Hitler’s Goals…By 1937, according to Hitler, Germany was once more a world power.In 1938, decided to pursue one of his goals: union with AustriaHitler threatened to invade Austria so chancellor put the Austrian Nazi Party in charge of government.They invited German troops in to “help” maintain orderMarch 13, 1938– Germany annexes Austria
15 Destruction of Czechoslovakia September 15, 1938 Hitler demanded Germany be given the Sudetenland, an area in NW Czechoslovakia that was inhabited primarily by GermansExpressed his willingness to risk war to achieve his objectivesMunich Conference- British, French, German, and Italian reps did not object to Hitler’s plans and made an agreement virtually meeting all of Hitler’s demandsHigh point of western appeasementPrime Minister of Great Britain thought along with many others that Hitler would keep his promise to make no more demands & truly believed this would keep peace!