Presentation on theme: "Phases of WWII Canada at War Chapter 7. Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 The Axis 1939 Germany Italy Japan (Germany had also signed a non-aggression."— Presentation transcript:
Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 The Axis 1939 Germany Italy Japan (Germany had also signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union) The Allies 1939 France Britain The Commonwealth
Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 In Asia, Japan had invaded China (1937)and was beginning to extend its empire
Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 The early part of the war was called the “Phony War” because little happened after war was declared. In Europe, Poland was defeated by Germany and the Soviet Union (USSR)
Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 France prepared to defend its border with Germany
Phase 1 September 1939 – June 1940 The “Blitzkrieg” – Lightening War German tanks, aircraft and infantry – quick and powerful – overran Allied defenses Denmark and Norway were invaded Invaded Belgium and Holland May 10, 1940 Both countries surrendered in a short time. France was invaded May 12, 1940. On June 22, it also surrendered.
What about Canada? Unlike WWI, Canada was not automatically at war in 1939 just because Great Britain was. They declared war themselves on September 10, 1939 Canada’s involvement was somewhat “conservative” during the first phase of the war – Wanted to avoid casualties – Wanted to avoid conscription (mandatory service)
What about Canada? Canada committed to support Britain with war materials and a small army. They also mobilized their merchant ships (38 ships) to transport goods and people. The BCATP – British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was set up in Canada to train air force pilots from other Commonwealth countries (such as Australia)
What about Canada? When Holland and Belgium and then France surrendered to Germany in 1940, people were shocked. Great Britain was left to face Germany alone with only the commonwealth allies’ help. Canada changed its commitment to become much more involved in the war in Europe.
What about Canada? Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King visits Canadian troops
Phase 2 June 1940 – July 1943 After the early German victories of the war, Britain stood alone against them in Europe. In August of 1940, Germany began the “Battle of Britain” – an air attack on London and other English cities The Nazi air force was called the Luftwaffe People called these series of air raid the “blitz”
In the summer of 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Fighting would continue along this eastern front for much of the rest of the war. Eventually, victory would come to the Soviet Union. The Soviet leader was Joseph Stalin
On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii The USA, which had tried to stay out of the war, was now at war with Japan.
Phase 2 June 1940 – July 1943 Over 2000 military personnel were killed along with many civilians. Several battleships were sunk and many more damaged along with aircraft The next day, Germany also declared war on the United States.
What about Canada? The Canadian Convoys A convoy was a group of merchant ships which carried wartime supplies to Europe from Canada. They were in tremendous danger from German submarines. German submarines were called “U-Boats” because the German word for submarine is ‘unterseeboot” (under sea boat)
What about Canada? Convoys would travel in a zigzag to allude the u-boats. They had aircraft support except for the area known as the ‘black pit’ A German U-Boat
What about Canada? The Corvettes The Corvettes were a type of allied warship. They were short and broad, so they could patrol on very rough seas. This made them good u-boat hunters There were over 300 corvettes which served in WWII. 37 were lost.
What about Canada? 120 Corvettes were built in Canada The HMCS Sackville was one of these She was built in Saint John in 1941 and served in WWII. She is now a museum in Halifax Harbour
What about Canada? Hong Kong – November – December, 1941 Canadian and British soldiers were defending Hong Kong when the Japanese attacked. The majority of the Canadians were captured and taken to prisoner of war camps. The rest died either during the battle or in the camp itself.
What about Canada? Dieppe, France - 1942 Dieppe is a port in northern France. The allies wanted to re-capture it. (Operation Jubilee) 6000 allied troops took part in the Raid on Dieppe. 4963 were Canadians. 900 Canadians died and almost 2000 became prisoners of war.