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 Bones require muscles for locomotion  Muscles move bone by contracting (shortening)

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Presentation on theme: " Bones require muscles for locomotion  Muscles move bone by contracting (shortening)"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Bones require muscles for locomotion  Muscles move bone by contracting (shortening)

3 Function of Muscles  Produce movement  Maintain posture  Stabilize joints  Generate heat

4 The Muscular System  Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement – they contract or shorten and are the machine of the body  Three basic muscle types are found in the body  Smooth muscle  Cardiac muscle  Skeletal muscle

5 Smooth Muscle  Located in the digestive and reproductive system  Under Involuntary control Cardiac Muscle  Found in the wall of the heart  under Involuntary control Skeletal Muscle  Attached to bone  Provide force for moving and stabilizing the body  Under Voluntary control  Striated muscle

6 At the joints (where bones meet), there are different types of connective tissue:  Ligament – connects bone to bone  Tendon – connects muscle to bone  Bursa – fluid filled sac that allows bones to move easily over others  Cartilage – connective tissue that cushions the joint at the end of bones and between bones

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9 Anatomy of the Muscular System Origin Muscle attachment that remains fixed Insertion Muscle attachment that moves Action What joint movement a muscle produces i.e. flexion, extension, abduction, etc.

10 For muscles to create a movement, they can only pull, not push Muscles in the body rarely work alone, & are usually arranged in groups surrounding a joint A muscle that contracts to create the desired action is known as an agonist or prime mover A muscle that helps the agonist is a synergist A muscle that opposes the action of the agonist, therefore undoing the desired action is an antagonist

11  A pair of muscles which work against each other to make a joint move  The muscle that contracts to bend the joint is the flexor, and the muscle that contracts to straighten the joint is the extensor

12  If you’re double jointed it means that you have extra stretchy ligaments which allows your joints more flexibility

13 1. Muscles move bones. Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons. 2. When the muscle contracts, it becomes shorter and pulls the tendon which pulls the bone. When the muscle relaxes, the pulling stops. 3. Muscles can only PULL, so they work in pairs. For example, the bicep contracts to pull the lower arm up. When the tricep contracts, your arm straightens.

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15 Bones provide the framework of the body, joints allow for movement, and muscles provide the strength to realize the movements. The kind of movement depends on the shape of the bone and in the joint.

16  frontalis  orbicularis oculi  orbicularis oris  sternocleidomastoid  deltoid  pectoralis major  biceps brachii  brachialis  rectus abdominis  brachoradialis  pronator teres  flexor carpi radialis  iliopsoas  Sartorius  vastus lateralis  pectineus  rectus femoris  peroneus longus  tibialis anterior  gracilis  vastus medialis  gastrocnemius  soleus  trapezius  teres major  triceps brachii  latissimus dorsi  external oblique  gluteus medius  gluteus maximus  semimembranosis  semitendinosis  Achilles tendon  soleus  biceps femoris  extensor carpi ulnaris  flexor carpi ulnaris

17  An Overview of the Major Skeletal Muscles

18 Figure 7-11(b)

19  Muscles of the Head and Neck Figure 7-12(a)

20  Muscles of the Head and Neck Figure 7-12(c)

21  Muscles of the Anterior Neck Figure 7-13

22  Muscles of the Spine Figure 7-14

23  Muscles of the Shoulder Figure 7-17(a)

24  Muscles of the Shoulder Figure 7-17(b)

25  Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 7-18(a)

26  Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist Figure 7-19

27 Muscles That Move the Thigh Figure 7-20(a)

28  Muscles That Move the Thigh Figure 7-20(b)

29  Muscles That Move the Leg Figure 7-21

30  Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(a)

31  Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(b)

32  Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(c)

33  Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(d)


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