Presentation on theme: "Adviser & Head Climate Change Programme, Department of Science & Technology"— Presentation transcript:
Adviser & Head Climate Change Programme, Department of Science & Technology
Presentation Outline Observed Trend in the frequency of extreme weather events over the globe and India Extreme Weather Events and their linkage with CC- Are freak events linked to CC? How can we reduce the impact of Extreme Weather Events in the Changing Climate? Summary
Observed Global Trend in the frequency of Extreme Weather events and Sea Level Rise
Recent Increasing Trends in Frequency of Natural Hazards Windstorms Floods Extreme Heat EventsDrought
Global average sea level has risen since 1961 at an average rate of 1.8mm/yr and since 1993 at 3.1mm/yr Changes in Sea Level since 1850 and Projection ( IPCC 4thAR, WGI, Paris, )
Bangladesh is projected to lose about 16% of its land area with a sea level rise of 1.5 m
Sea-Water Inundation Example: Maldives Area: 115 square miles Population: 143,000 Highest point: 20 ft above sea level Climate Change induced Sea Level Rise may inundate some of the islands of Maldives
Observed Trend in the frequency of Extreme Weather events and Sea Level Rise over India
Goswami et al., Science, Dec., 2006 Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Rainfall Low & Moderate events Heavy events (>10cm) V. Heavy events (>15cm)
Number of Flash Flood Events in India ( ) Increasing Trend in Flash Flood Events during past 25 years
Total Number of Flood Events in India ( ) Decreasing Trend in Total Flood Events during past 25 years
Decreasing Frequency of Total Number of Cyclonic Storms over India during
Decreasing Frequency of Total Number of Cyclonic Disturbances over India during past 120 years ( )
Increasing Frequency of Total Number of Low Pressure Areas over India during past 123 years ( )
Climate Projections Av. Surface temperature: increase by 2 - 4°C during 2050s Monsoon Rainfall: Marginal changes in monsoon months (JJAS) : Large changes during non-monsoon months No. of rainy days: set to decrease by more than 15 days Intensity of rains : to increase by 1-4 mm/day Cyclonic storms: Increase in frequency and intensity of cyclonic storms is projected
Extreme Events and their linkage with Climate Change
Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events Climate Change could impact frequency and severity of events on long term and not year to year No clear long term trend is observed in this regard but a number of regions have reported increase in variability. Events which are directly connected to temperature change have shown positive trends
Extreme Events which are directly and indirectly linked to CC Those extreme events which are directly linked to the warming are likely to increase- Heat waves, droughts, extreme rainfall (floods), etc. Those indirectly related are still doubtful to have been impacted by climate change- Increase in number/intensity of cyclones, tornadoes, local severe storms, etc.
Are Freak Extreme Events linked to Climate Change?
An unconfirmed cloudburst event, Glacier and moraine outbursts, Steep slopes associated with the terrain, Sudden gushing of water and debris into the valley regions, Flooding of rivers on account of incessant rain, Exceeding of carrying capacity of rivers, Major landslides, Panic reactions of people Main Causes of Uttarakhand (Kedarnath) Deluge June 2013
Kedarnath High Resolution Satellite Imagery of Uttarakhand Disaster (1)Blocked basin created by Moraine-a pool of water was built up Flow from Glacier (2) overtopping of the moraine barrier- resulting in release of impounded water (3) Trifurcation of Flow (4) Main Channel of Flow (5) Kedarnath Town struck by flow from 2 channels
Uttarakhand Disaster vs Cyclone Phailin UttarakhandPhailin Wx SystemCloud BurstCyclone Size50 km1000km Prediction Accuracy PoorVery Good Prediction time6-12 hrs in advance 5-6 days in advance Lead time for Disaster management 3-4 hrs3-4 days
Key Factors for High Impact of Extreme Events in Developing Countries Increase in Extreme Events Development /Globalization Population Increase
Viewing world through population density India is one among few countries having very high density of population
Impact of Climate Change on Developing Countries like India Impacts are worse - already more flood and drought prone and a large share of the economy is in climate sensitive sectors Lower capacity to adapt because of a lack of financial, institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge Climate change is likely to impact disproportionately upon the poorest countries and the poorest persons within countries, exacerbating inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources.
VULNERABILITY MAPPING of areas with present and projected scenarios of climate change in relation to extreme events DEVELOPING CAPACITIES TO ADAPT climate change in highly vulnerable regions INCREASING CAPABILITY TO DETECT AND PREDICT extreme events with greater accuracy and longer lead time. Deploying a MULTI-HAZARD INTEGRATED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM PUBLIC AWARENESS about possible impact of climate change and ways & means to cope up How can we reduce the impact of Extreme Weather Events in the Changing Climate? How can we reduce the impact of Extreme Weather Events in the Changing Climate?
Geographic Demographic Geo-technical Topographic Meteorological Seismological Multi-layered Data Base Management and Modeling Geological Model to analyze and predict impact of events to desired level Data level CountryStateDistrictTalukBlockVillage MultipleScenario based on data level & event
Integrated Disaster Management Concept Disaster Observation & Monitoring Prediction models Advanced & Dense Observational Network High resolution Data assimilation High speed computer Impact Assessment Village level data bank Data type Geographic Demographic Geo-technical Geological Topographical Meteorological Seismological Decision Support System Decision type Sociological Geo-political Economical Administrative Security Law & Order Dissemination of Early Warnings Communication system Wide Area network-upto village level Disaster proof-satellite based-2 way Location specific administrativeActions Feedback State Gov
Steps Towards Enhancing Capability to Detect and Predict Extreme Events and Dissemination of Warnings Met. Modernization Plan - Seamless system of Weather Observations and Prediction Multi-Hazard Integrated Decision Support System Sub-District level agro-advisory system Outreach- a 24x7 Dedicated Weather Channel