2Perfect TensesAny perfect tense is a compound tense. But what is a compound tense?Easy!! A compound word is 2 words put together like: home + work= homeworkplay + ground= playground.A compound tense is 2 verbs used together to form1 tense.
3Past ParticipleAll perfect tenses are made up of two parts: the helping verb haber and the past participle of the main verb:helping verb past participle helping verb past participleHe has eaten. We have seen.They have left. You have finished.I have studied. She has fallen.
4¿Qué es el presente perfecto? The present perfect is formed by combining:Thehelping verb HABER (“have” or “has”)the past participle+
5Past ParticipleAll perfect tenses are made up of two parts: the helping verb and the past participle of the main verb:helping verb past participle helping verb past participleI have studied. We have seenYou have finished.He has eaten. They have left.She has fallen. You all have helped.
6This is how you form the past participle in Spanish: Drop the –ar and add –ado:hablar hablado nadar nadadopensar pensado almorzar almorzadollegar llegado estar estadoDrop the –er or –ir and add –ido:comer comido poder podidoaprender aprendido querer queridoasistir asistido venir venido
7There are, of course, irregular past participles in Spanish as there are in English. call have calledjump have jumpedlook have lookedeat have eated???? have eatenbring have bringed???? have brought
11Para formar en españolIn Spanish we form the present perfect by combining the present tense of the verb haber (the helping verb, or el verbo auxiliar) with a past participleFor example:Yo he bailado.I have danced.Nosotros no hemos estudiado para el examen.We haven’t studied for the test.
13Para formar… Here are the present perfect forms of estudiar: he estudiadohemos estudiadohas estudiadohabéis estudiadoha estudiadohan estudiado
14Now you try…On your notes, see if you can figure out the present perfect forms for the verb hablar:he ________hemos _______has ________habéis ________ha ________han ________
15Is this what you came up with? he habladohemos habladohas habladohabéis habladoha habladohan hablado
16Let’s try another…Now see if you can form the present perfect forms of the verb tomar:__ ____________ __________ _____________ ________
17Is this what you got? he tomado hemos tomado has tomado habéis tomado ha tomadohan tomado
18Let’s try another one…see if you can come up with the present perfect tense of ir: __ ________ ______ _________ ______ ______
19Is this what you came up with? he idohemos idohas idohabéis idoha idohan ido
20Many of you may have assumed that ir had an irregular past participle Many of you may have assumed that ir had an irregular past participle. Afterall, it does have an irregular present participle. But ir is actually regular in this form.
22Pluperfect (Past Perfect) (Pluscuamperfecto) The past perfect (also called the pluperfect and, in Spanish, the pluscuamperfecto), remember, is the past of the past and translates with “had” in English. ALL perfect tenses get a helping verb and a past participle:present perfect he has eatenpast perfect he had eatenfuture perfect he will have eatenconditional perfect he would have eaten
23había hablado habíamos hablado As you saw, the present perfect tense has a set of helping verbs that come from “haber”:he hemoshas habéisha hanThe same is true of the past perfect. The helping verbs for the past perfect are the imperfect form of “haber”:había hablado habíamos habladohabías hablado habíais habladohabía hablado habían hablado
24Note that the endings on “haber” for the past perfect are the endings for the imperfect tense: había habíamoshabías habíaishabía habíanThe present perfect is the PRESENT tense of “haber” + the past participle.The past perfect tense is the IMPERFECT (PAST) tense of “haber” + the past participle.Guess what the future perfect tense is composed of. But that’s another lesson.