Presentation on theme: "The Perfect Tense Year 12. What is the Perfect Tense? The perfect tense is a verb form used to talk about what has or hasnt happened; for example, Ive."— Presentation transcript:
The Perfect Tense Year 12
What is the Perfect Tense? The perfect tense is a verb form used to talk about what has or hasnt happened; for example, Ive broken my glasses; we havent spoken about it.
Using the perfect tense
- In English, we use the perfect tense (have, has, or their shortened form ve and s followed by a past participle such as spoken, eaten, lived, been) to talk about what has or hasnt happened today, this week, this year or in our lives up to now. - In Spanish the perfect tense is used in a similar way He terminado el libro –Ive finished the book Nunca ha estado en Bolivia –Hes never been to Bolivia Ya se han ido –Theyve already left
Forming the Perfect Tense As in English, the perfect tense in Spanish has two parts to it. These are: the present tense of the verb haber (meaning to have). a part of the main verb called the past participle.
Forming the Past Participle
To form the past participle of regular –ar verbs, take off the –ar ending of the infinitive and add –ado hablar (to speak)-hablado (speaking) To form the past participle of regular –er or – ir verbs, take off the –er or –ir ending of the infinitive and add –ido comer (to eat)-comido (eaten) vivir (to live)-vivido (lived)
The Prefect tense of some regular verbs The following table shows how you can combine the present tense of haber with the past participle of any verb to form the perfect tense. Present of haberPast participle yohehablado túhastrabajado él/ellahacomido nosotroshemosvendido vosotroshabéisvivido ellos/ellashandecidido
Note!! You should not confuse haber with tener. Even though they both mean to have, haber is only used for forming tenses and in certain impersonal expressions such as hay and había meaning there is, there are, there was, there were and so on.
Verbs with irregular past participles
Some past participles are irregular. There arent too many, so try to learn them. abrir (to open)-abierto (opened) cubrir (to cover)-cubierto (covered) decir (to say)-dicho (said) escribir (to write)-escrito (written) freír (to fry)-frito (fried) hacer (to do)-hecho (done) morir (to die)-muerto (died) oír (to listen)-oído (heard) poner (to put)-puesto (put)
Reflexive verbs in the perfect tense The perfect tense of reflexive verbs is formed in the same way as for ordinary verbs. The reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se) come before he, has, ha, and so on. The table on the next page shows the perfect tense of lavarse in full.
Subject pronoun Reflexive pronoun Present tense of haber Past participle meaning yomehelavado I have washed tútehaslavado You have washed él/ellasehalavado He/she has washed nosotrosnoshemoslavado We have washed vosotrososhabéislavado You have washed ellos/ellassehanlavado They have washed
Dont use the perfect tense with desde, desde hace and hace…que when talking about how long something has been going on for. Use the present tense instead. Esta enferma desde julio he has been ill since july Hace mucho tiempo que salen juntos They have been going out together for a long time.
Key points The spanish perfect tense is formed using the present tense of haber and a past participle. In spanish the perfect tense is used very much as it is in English.