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Present Perfect and Pluperfect. Lets look at the present perfect in English first: I have read that book. I have lived here for five years. Perfect means.

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Presentation on theme: "Present Perfect and Pluperfect. Lets look at the present perfect in English first: I have read that book. I have lived here for five years. Perfect means."— Presentation transcript:

1 Present Perfect and Pluperfect

2 Lets look at the present perfect in English first: I have read that book. I have lived here for five years. Perfect means complete. All perfect tenses are by definition, therefore, past tenses. So whats the difference between I have read that book. And simply I read that book? The difference in this case is how we view the action. If we say, I have (or Ive) read that book, we see it as complete but having influence on the present. We might want to discuss it. I read that book means that its over and done with. The second sentence is a little easier to explain: I have lived here for five years. That means not only have I inhabited this place for the past five years but also that I continue to live here. Sometimes the present perfect means that the action is complete but still going on in the present, and sometimes it means that the action still has influence on the present. I ate five candy bars.Action completed. Ive eaten five candy bars And maybe Ill eat some more! -- Action may continue. or... And thats why my stomach hurts. -- Influence on the present

3 The past perfect is easier to explain, but we dont always use it when we should. The past perfect (also called pluperfect) is the past of the past. Juan had already eaten when we arrived. Both actions (eaten and arrived) are in the past. But the eating happened before the arriving. So arrived is past, and had eaten is the past of thatthe past of the past.

4 Past Participle All perfect tenses are made up of two parts: the helping verb and the past participle of the main verb: helping verb past participle helping verb past participle He has eaten. We have seen. They have left. You have finished. I have studied. She has fallen.

5 This is how you form the past participle in Spanish: Drop the –ar and add –ado: hablarhabladonadarnadado pensarpensadoalmorzaralmorzado llegarllegadoestarestado Drop the –er or –ir and add –ido: comercomidopoderpodido leerleídoquererquerido asistirasistidovenirvenido

6 Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.here

7 There are, of course, irregular past participles in Spanish as there are in English. callhave called jumphave jumped lookhave looked eathave eated????have eaten bringhave bringed????have brought

8 You have to memorize the irregular past participles in Spanish just as you do in English. volvervuelto (NOT volvido) ponerpuesto (NOT ponido) abrirabierto etc. cubrircubierto escribirescrito vervisto morirmuerto decirdicho hacerhecho romperroto

9 Helping Verb Now you need a helping verb to go with your past participles. What we use is the present tense of the verb haber. he habladohemos hablado has habladohabéis hablado ha habladohan hablado Use these verb forms with all your past participles: he comido, has querido, ha vuelto, hemos trabajado, etc.

10 Click here to go to a brief practice exercise. here

11 Pluperfect (Past Perfect) (Pluscuamperfecto) The past perfect (also called the pluperfect and, in Spanish, the pluscuamperfecto), remember, is the past of the past and translates with had in English. ALL perfect tenses get a helping verb and a past participle: present perfecthe has eaten past perfect he had eaten future perfecthe will have eaten conditional perfecthe would have eaten

12 As you saw, the present perfect tense has a set of helping verbs that come from haber: hehemos hashabéis hahan The same is true of the past perfect. The helping verbs for the past perfect are the imperfect form of haber: había habladohabíamos hablado habías habladohabíais hablado había habladohabían hablado

13 Note that the endings on haber for the past perfect are the endings for the imperfect tense: había habíamos habías habíais había habían The present perfect is the PRESENT tense of haber + the past participle. The past perfect tense is the IMPERFECT (PAST) tense of haber + the past participle. Guess what the future perfect tense is composed of. But thats another lesson.

14 Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.here


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