Presentation on theme: "5 Major World Religions Religions of the World ReligionFollowers Christianity1.9 billion Islam1.1 billion Hinduism781 million Buddhism324 million Judaism14."— Presentation transcript:
ReligionFollowers Christianity1.9 billion Islam1.1 billion Hinduism781 million Buddhism324 million Judaism14 million
Types of Religions Monotheistic religions believe in one god. Polytheistic religions believe in many gods. Animistic or traditional religions often believe that different aspects of nature have divine powers.
Hinduism HINDUISM is one of the world's oldest religions. Over 2/3's of the world's Hindus live in India; large numbers reside in Africa also. Hindus believe in many gods, numbering into the thousands. They recognize one supreme spirit called Brahman ("the Absolute.")
Hinduism Hinduism has many sacred books, the oldest being a series called the "Vedas.“ Traditional Hindu society was divided into groups of four classes (or varnas). This was known as the "caste system."
Caste System Untouchables Good Karma OK Karma Bad Karma
Hindu Philosophy The goal of Hindus is to someday join with Brahman. Until that union takes place, believers are in a continuous process of rebirth called "reincarnation."
Hinduism Founder Hinduism has no founder. The oldest religion, it may date to prehistoric times. How many gods? Many (all gods and goddesses are considered different forms of one Supreme Being.) Holy writings The most ancient are the four Vedas. Beliefs Reincarnation states that all living things are caught in a cycle of death and rebirth. Life is ruled by the laws of karma, in which rebirth depends on moral behavior Types No single belief system unites Hindus. A Hindu can believe in only one god, in many, or in none. Where Hinduism is practiced by more than 80% of India's population.
Buddhism Buddhism is the world's oldest universal religion and it is the second fastest growing religion.
Buddhism Founding person of Buddhism is Guatama, the Buddha The Dalai Lama is a Buddhist monk who remains the leader of the Tibetans. Buddhism is a major religion in China, Japan, India, and Tibet.
The Major Philosophy of Buddhism Love: without conditions Compassion: or feeling at one with the person who is suffering Sympathetic Joy:Celebrate the happiness of others, and do not resent their good fortune. Impartiality: Treat everyone equally, and do not use others for personal gain or to win approval.
The Major Philosophy of Buddhism Buddhism states that existence is a continuing cycle of death and rebirth called reincarnation. Each person's position in life is determined by his or her behavior in the previous life. This is known as their "karma" (also a Hindu belief).
Buddhism Basic Tenets of Buddhism ▫The world is full of suffering ▫Meditation is our only escape ▫Nirvana is the ultimate goal ▫Follow the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path Right Understanding Right Thought Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration
Buddhism Founder Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha, in the 4th or 5th century B.C. in India. How many gods? None, but there are enlightened beings (Buddhas) Holy writings The most important are the Tripitaka, the Mahayana Sutras, Tantra, and Zen texts Beliefs The Four Noble Truths: (1) all beings suffer; (2) desire—for possessions, power, and so on—causes suffering; (3) desire can be overcome; and (4) the path that leads away from desire is the Eightfold Path (the Middle Way). Types Theravada (Way of the Elders) and Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) are the two main types. Where Buddhism is the main religion in many Asian countries.
Monotheism Began in Palestine with the Jews Abraham is the founder of: ▫Judaism ▫Christianity ▫Islam
Judaism Founder The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 B.C. Moses gave the Jews the Torah around 1250 B.C. How many gods? One Holy writings The most important are the Torah, or the first five books of Moses. Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. Beliefs Jews believe in the laws of God and the words of the prophets. In Judaism, however, actions are more important than beliefs. Types The three main types are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. Conservative Jews follow most traditional practices, but less strictly than the Orthodox. Reform Jews are the least traditional. Where There are large Jewish populations in Israel and the U.S.
Monotheism Begun by Abraham about 2000 BCE Common Beliefs: ▫ God created the universe ▫God continues to govern the universe ▫The Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God on Mt. Sinai and must be followed
Judaism JUDAISM is a religion of just one people: the Jews. JUDAISM was the first to teach belief in only one God. Two other important religions developed from Judaism: Christianity and Islam.
Judaism Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His way. Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah. The Jewish people do not agree; they anticipate His arrival in the future. Judaism teaches that death is not the end and that there is a world to come.
Judaism The "Torah," the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, is the most important Jewish scripture. It contains the basic laws of Judaism. Another important book is the "Talmud," serving primarily as a guide to the civil and religious laws of Judaism.
Judaism The Jewish house of worship is called a synagogue. Rabbis (spiritual leaders) conduct services, act as interpreters of Jewish laws, and deliver sermons. Today there are over 18 million followers of Judaism scattered throughout the world. A large number of those people live in the Jewish nation of Israel. Over six million live in the United States.
Jewish Philosophy God is one and unique God is the creator God is transcendent God is immanent. God is lawgiver God is personal We have the obligation to worship The Torah is God's law God is judge The Messiah will come.
Christianity Founder Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem. How many gods? One Holy writings The Bible Beliefs Jesus taught love of God and neighbor and a concern for justice. Types In 1054 Christians separated into the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. In the early 1500s the major Protestant groups (Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Episcopalian) came into being. A variety of other groups have since developed. Where Through its mission work, Christianity has spread to most parts of the globe.
Christianity The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the foundation of Christianity. Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of his day began to profess a new way of thinking. This eventually led to the beginning of the Christian religion.
Christianity Christianity started about 2000 years ago about the same time of Jesus. The central point of Christian belief is that God, the Father, entered into human history as the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy Spirit.
Christian Philosophy God is the Creator of the universe. There is one God, Who is Three Persons- Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Jesus is both fully man and fully God. He was born of the Virgin Mary Crucified, resurrected from the dead, and ascended to the Father.
Christian Philosophy Sin and Evil are realities in our existence. The Bible is the Holy Book that records God's revelation. All believers are promised life everlasting. The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the followers was his 12 disciples.
Christianity Christians believe the Old and New Testaments of the Bible are holy books. The first four books of the New Testament were written by followers of Jesus.
Christianity Some branches of Christianity are: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Eastern Orthodox.
Islam Founder Muhammad, who was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. How many gods? One, Allah Holy writings The Koran (Qu’ran) Beliefs The Five Pillars, or main duties, are: profession of faith; prayer 5 times a day; charitable giving; fasting during the month of Ramadan; and pilgrimage to Mecca at least once. Types Almost 90% of Muslims are Sunnis. Shiites are the second- largest group. The Shiites split from the Sunnis in 632 when Muhammad died. Where Islam is the main religion of the Middle East, Asia, and the north of Africa.
Islam ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s A. D. The Islamic religion started in the area known as Palestine in the year 600AD. It has about 850 million followers, most of them in the region north and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
ISLAM The Muslim name for God is Allah. Muhammad was a camel driver from Saudi Arabia The Angel Gabriel gave Muhammad The Koran in the desert in the 7 th Century CE. It is the Muslim holy book. He started his religion in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. This is the holiest city in Islam.
ISLAM Muslims worship in a mosque Muslims must follow the Five Pillars of Islam: ▫Stating the Faith ▫Prayer 5 times/day facing Mecca ▫Charity to poor ▫Pilgrimage (Hajj) ▫Fast during Ramadan
Islamic Philosophy Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of testing and preparation for the life to come. Angels record good and bad deeds. People should behave themselves and help others, trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their reward.
Islam Muslims pray five times daily in their mosques (churches). While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces to the ground. All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.