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The Five Major Religions

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Presentation on theme: "The Five Major Religions"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Five Major Religions
Social Studies Online Copyright © 2002 Glenna R. Shaw and FTC Publishing All Rights Reserved

2 BluePrint Skill: Grade 7 History
Compare and contrast the tenets of the five major world religions (i.e., Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism).

3 Main Menu Christianity Buddhism Islam Judaism Hinduism

4 Top Ten Organized Religions of the World
Statistics of the world's religions are only very rough approximations. Aside from Christianity, few religions, if any, attempt to keep statistical records; and even Protestants and Catholics employ different methods of counting members. Christianity 2.1 billion 33.0% Islam 1.5 billion 21% Hinduism 900 million14% Buddhism 376 million 6% Judaism 14 million 0.22%

5 Christianity Founder How many gods? Holy writings Beliefs Types Where
Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem. How many gods? One Holy writings The Bible Beliefs Jesus taught love of God and neighbor and a concern for justice. Types In 1054 Christians separated into the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. In the early 1500s the major Protestant groups (Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Episcopalian) came into being. A variety of other groups have since developed. Where Through its mission work, Christianity has spread to most parts of the globe.

6 Christianity The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the foundation of Christianity. Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of his day began to profess a new way of thinking. This eventually led to the beginning of the Christian religion.

7 Christianity Christianity started about 2000 years ago about the same time of Jesus. The central point of Christian belief is that God, the Father, entered into human history as the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy Spirit. 

8 Christian Philosophy God is the Creator of the universe. There is one God, Who is Three  Persons-      Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Jesus is both fully man and fully God.  He was born of the Virgin Mary  Crucified, resurrected from the dead, and ascended to the Father.

9 Christian Philosophy Sin and Evil are realities in our existence. The Bible is the Holy Book that records God's revelation. All believers are promised life everlasting. The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the followers was his 12 disciples.

10 Buddhism Founding person of Buddhism is Guatama, the Buddha
The Dalai Lama is a Buddhist monk who remains the leader of the Tibetans. Buddhism is a major religion in China, Japan, India, and Tibet.

11 Buddhism Founder How many gods? Holy writings Beliefs Types Where
Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha, in the 4th or 5th century B.C. in India. How many gods? None, but there are enlightened beings (Buddhas) Holy writings The most important are the Tripitaka, the Mahayana Sutras, Tantra, and Zen texts Beliefs The Four Noble Truths: (1) all beings suffer; (2) desire—for possessions, power, and so on—causes suffering; (3) desire can be overcome; and (4) the path that leads away from desire is the Eightfold Path (the Middle Way). Types Theravada (Way of the Elders) and Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) are the two main types. Where Buddhism is the main religion in many Asian countries.

12 The Major Philosophy of Buddhism
Love: without conditions Compassion: or feeling at one with the person who is suffering Sympathetic Joy:Celebrate the happiness of others, and do not resent their good fortune. Impartiality: Treat everyone equally, and do not use others for personal gain or to win approval.

13 The Major Philosophy of Buddhism
Buddhism states that existence is a continuing cycle of death and rebirth called reincarnation. Each person's position in life is determined by his or her behavior in the previous life. This is known as their "karma" (also a Hindu belief).

14 Buddhism Buddhism is the world's oldest universal religion and it is the second fastest growing religion.    

15 Islam Founder How many gods? Holy writings Beliefs Types Where
Muhammad, who was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. How many gods? One, Allah Holy writings The Koran (Qu’ran) Beliefs The Five Pillars, or main duties, are: profession of faith; prayer 5 times a day; charitable giving; fasting during the month of Ramadan; and pilgrimage to Mecca at least once. Types Almost 90% of Muslims are Sunnis. Shiites are the second-largest group. The Shiites split from the Sunnis in 632 when Muhammad died. Where Islam is the main religion of the Middle East, Asia, and the north of Africa.

16 Islam ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s A. D. The Islamic religion started in the area known as Palestine in the year 600AD. It has about 850 million followers, most of them in the region north and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

17 Islam The holy book of Islam is the "Koran." Muslims believe its words to be those of Allah himself, spoken to Muhammad by an angel. Allah, is the Islamic God. People who believe these ideas are called Muslims.

18 Islamic Philosophy Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of testing and preparation for the life to come. Angels record good and bad deeds. People should behave themselves and help others, trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their reward.

19 Islam Muslims pray five times daily in their mosques (churches).
While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces to the ground. All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.

20 Hinduism Founder How many gods? Holy writings Beliefs Types Where
Hinduism has no founder. The oldest religion, it may date to prehistoric times. How many gods? Many (all gods and goddesses are considered different forms of one Supreme Being.) Holy writings The most ancient are the four Vedas. Beliefs Reincarnation states that all living things are caught in a cycle of death and rebirth. Life is ruled by the laws of karma, in which rebirth depends on moral behavior Types No single belief system unites Hindus. A Hindu can believe in only one god, in many, or in none. Where Hinduism is practiced by more than 80% of India's population.

21 Hinduism HINDUISM is one of the world's oldest religions.
Over 2/3's of the world's Hindus live in India; large numbers reside in Africa also. Hindus believe in many gods, numbering into the thousands. They recognize one supreme spirit called Brahman ("the Absolute.")

22 Hindu Philosophy Hindus believe in many gods, numbering into the thousands. They recognize one supreme spirit called Brahman (the Absolute). The goal of Hindus is to someday join with Brahman. Until that union takes place, believers are in a continuous process of rebirth called "reincarnation."

23 Hindu Philosophy At death, the Hindu's deeds (karma) determine what the next life will be. Followers work to break this cycle--birth, death, re-birth-- (referred to by writers as the "Wheel of Life") and gain release. The Hindu's soul then merges with Brahman in a condition of spiritual perfection (moksha).

24 Hinduism Hinduism has many sacred books, the oldest being a series called the "Vedas.“ Traditional Hindu society was divided into groups of four classes (or varnas). This was known as the "caste system."

25 Judaism Founder How many gods? Holy writings Beliefs Types Where
The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 B.C. Moses gave the Jews the Torah around 1250 B.C. How many gods? One Holy writings The most important are the Torah, or the first five books of Moses. Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. Beliefs Jews believe in the laws of God and the words of the prophets. In Judaism, however, actions are more important than beliefs. Types The three main types are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. Conservative Jews follow most traditional practices, but less strictly than the Orthodox. Reform Jews are the least traditional. Where There are large Jewish populations in Israel and the U.S.

26 Judaism JUDAISM is a religion of just one people: the Jews. JUDAISM was the first to teach belief in only one God. Two other important religions developed from Judaism: Christianity and Islam.

27 Judaism Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His way. Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah. The Jewish people do not agree; they anticipate His arrival in the future. Judaism teaches that death is not the end and that there is a world to come.

28 Judaism The "Torah," the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, is the most important Jewish scripture. It contains the basic laws of Judaism. Another important book is the "Talmud," serving primarily as a guide to the civil and religious laws of Judaism.

29 Judaism The Jewish house of worship is called a synagogue.
Rabbis (spiritual leaders) conduct services, act as interpreters of Jewish laws, and deliver sermons. Today there are over 18 million followers of Judaism scattered throughout the world. A large number of those people live in the Jewish nation of Israel. Over six million live in the United States.

30 Jewish Philosophy God is one and unique God is the creator
God is transcendent God is immanent. God is lawgiver God is personal We have the obligation to worship The Torah is God's law God is judge The Messiah will come.

31 How much have you learned?
Let’s take a Chalkboard Challenge

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