We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use “direct = quoted” speech, or “indirect = reported” speech.
Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example - Maha said, “I study English every day.” is reported as: - Maha said (that) she studied English every day.
1- I am studying English. 2- I have studied English. I studied English. I had studied English. 3- I will study English. 4- I am going to study English. 5- I can study English. 6- I may study English. 7- I must study English. I have to study English. 1- She said she was studying English. 2- She said she had studied English. 3- She said she would study English. 4- She said she was going to study English. 5- She said she could study English. 6- She said she might study English. 7- She said she had to study English.
1- Should – ought to – might do not change. 2- sometimes we do not change the tense to the past in spoken English if the speaker is reporting something immediately or soon after it was said. Example: What did she say? I didn’t hear her. She said she wants us to do this exercise.
3- sometimes we do not change the tense to the past in formal English if the reported sentence is about a fact that does not change. Example: “My name is Asma.” she said her name is Asma. “The world is round.” He said the world is round. 4- when the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect or future, the noun clause verb is not changed. Example: “I study English every day.” She says she studies English every day. She has said that she studies English every day. She will say that she studies English every day.
* “ Close your book” She told me to close my book. (imperative) * “where is my book?” she asked where her book was. (wh- question) * “ will you go to the party?” she asked if I would go to the party. (yes/no question)