2 Contents Introduction Noun Clauses beginning with a question word Noun Clauses beginning with Whether or IfQuestion words followed by infinitivesNoun Clauses beginning with That
3 Contents Quoted Speech Reported Speech: Verb forms in noun clauses Using the subjunctive in noun clausesUsing –ever words
4 IntroductionA clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.An independent clause (or main clause) is not a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of the sentence.A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) is not a complete sentence. It MUST be connected to an independent clause.
5 Example: I know where Sue lives. ‘I’ Main Subject‘Know’ Main Verb.‘ I know’ Independent clause‘Where Sue lives’ dependent clause
6 A Noun clause is used as a subject or an object. e.g. Subject: What he said was interesting.Object: I listened to what he said.
7 Noun clauses beginning with a question word In a noun clause, the subject precedes the verb.e.g. Where does she live?I don’t know where she lives.What did he say?I couldn’t hear what he said.Note: Does, did, and do are used in questions, but not in noun clauses.
8 Noun Clauses beginning with Whether or If When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause, whether or if is used to introduce the clause.e.g. Does he need help?I wonder whether/if he needs help.Will she come?I don’t know whether/if she will come.I wonder whether or not she will come.Whether she comes or not is unimportant to me.
9 Question words followed by infinitives Question words (when, where, how, who, whom, whose, what, which ) and whether maybe followed by infinitive. The meaning expressed by the infinitive is either should or can/could.e.g. I don’t know what to do. (~what I should do.)Jim told us where to find it. (~ where we should find it.)Pam can’t decide whether to go or (to) stay home.(~whether she should go or stay home.)
10 Noun Clause beginning with THAT The word ‘that’, when it introduces a noun clause, has no meaning in itself. It simply marks the beginning of the clause.e.g. He is a good actor.I think that he is a good actor.The world is round.We know (that) the world is round.Note: In a noun clause, ‘That’ is frequently omitted.
11 When THAT can’t be omitted The word ‘that’ is not omitted when it introduces a noun clause used as the subject of a sentence.e.g. That she doesn’t understand spoken English is obvious.That the world is round is a fact.It is a fact that the world is round.Note: More commonly, ‘It’ is functions as the subject and the noun clause is placed at the end of the sentence.