2 Teaching aims:1. Students can understand the difference between direct and indirect speech..2. Students can learn how to transform direct speech into indirect speech.
3 1. IntroductionWe often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect speech.1.1 Direct SpeechSaying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.For example:She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."or"Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.1.2 Indirect SpeechIndirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word.
4 2. Transformation of direct speech into indirect speech. 2.1 TENSE HARMONYsimple presentHe said, “I go to school every day.” simple past He said (that) he went to school every day.
5 simple past He said, “I went to school every day.” past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day. present perfect He said, “I have gone to school every day.”past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day. present progressiveHe said, “I am going to school every day.”past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day.
6 The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. Some examples of this situation are given below.simple present + simple present He says, “I go to school every day.”simple present + simple present He says (that) he goes to school every day.present perfect + simple presentHe has said, “I go to school every day.”present perfect + simple present He has said (that) he goes to school every day.
7 Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used. If the verb said is used, then the form of the modal, or another modal that has a past meaning is used.can He said, “I can go to school every day.”could He said (that) he could go to school every day.may He said, “I may go to school every day.”might He said (that) he might go to school every day.might He said, “I might go to school every day.” must He said, “I must go to school every day.”had to He said (that) he had to go to school every day.
8 e. g. If the main verb of the sentence is in the past, the verb in the noun clause will usually be in a past form.He said, “I will never forget you.” He said (that) he would never forget you.Note:If the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the noun clause verb is not changed.She says, "I wash my hair every day." She says she washes her hair every day.She has said, "I wash my hair every day." She has said that she washes her hair every day.She will say, "I wash my hair every day." She will say that she washes her hair every day.
9 2.2 CHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE REFERENCE Now then,at that timethis weekthat weekToday that dayTomorrow the following day, the next day, a day later
10 2.3 Other changes:In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural, except when the speaker reports his own words:I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours ==> him/his/her/herswe/us/our/ours, you/your/yours ==> they/their/theirs:e. g. He said: "I like your new car." He told her that he liked her new car.I said: "I'm going to my friend's house." I said that I was going to my friend's house.
11 3. INDIRECT QUESTIONSWhen reporting yes/no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word.For example:She asked, "Do you want to come with me?" She asked me if I wanted to come with her.Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.He asked, "Why are you studying English?" She asked me why I was studying English.
12 4. HOPES, INTENTIONS, PROMISES When we report an intention, hope or promise, we use an appropriate reporting verb followed by a that-clause or a to-infinitive:"I'll pay you the money tomorrow."He promised to pay me the money the next day.He promised that he would pay me the money the next day.Other verbs used in this pattern include:hope, propose, threaten, guarantee, swear.
13 5. ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS 1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like 'tell' with a to-clause.Examples:He said, “Go away.” He told me to go away.Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command, order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid.The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!" The doctor told me to stop smoking.
14 2. Requests for objects are reported using the pattern ask + for + object: Examples:a. "Can I have an apple?", she asked. She asked for an apple.b. "Can I have the newspaper, please?" He asked for the newspaper.c. "May I have a glass of water?" he said. He asked for a glass of water.d. "Sugar, please." She asked for the sugar.e. "Could I have three kilos of onions?" He asked for three kilos of onions.
15 3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause 3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. 'That' and 'should' are optional in these clauses:She said: "Why don't you get a mechanic to look at the car?" She suggested (that) I (should) get a mechanic to look at the car.Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand, request, propose.Examples:The dentist said, "I think you should use a different toothbrush". The dentist recommended (that) I (should) use a different toothbrush.
16 Assignment:1. Read the chapter 33.2. Do the exercises after the chapter.