Presentation on theme: "Quoted Speech and Reported Speech. Quoted SpeechQuoted Speech Sometimes we want to quote a speaker's words to write a speaker’s exact words. Exact quotations."— Presentation transcript:
Quoted SpeechQuoted Speech Sometimes we want to quote a speaker's words to write a speaker’s exact words. Exact quotations are used in many kinds of writing, such as newspaper articles, stories and novels, and academic papers. When we quote a speaker’s words, we use quotation marks.
Speaker: Speaker’s exact words -Jane: Cats are fun to watch. -Mike: Yes, I agree. They’re graceful and playful. Do you own a cat? How about Quoting the speaker’s words???
Quoting the Speaker’s Words: (a)Jane said, “Cats are fun to watch.” (b) Mike said, “Yes, I agree. They’re graceful and playful. Do you own a cat?”
How to Write Quotations: 1- Put a comma after said.* Jane said, 2- Put quotation marksJane Said, “ 3- Capitalize the first word of the quotation. Jane said, “C 4- Write the quotation. Put a final period. Jane said, “cats are fun to watch. 5- Put quotation marks after the period. Jane said, “cats are fun to watch.”
Reported Speech: refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words. Not al of the exact words are used: Verb forms and pronouns may change. Quoted Speech: Ann said, “I am hungry.” Ann said that she was hungry. Tom Said, “I need my pen.” Tom said he needed his pen.
Using SAY vs. TELL Say is followed immediately by a noun clause. Ann said that she was hungry. Tell is NOT followed immediately by a noun clause. Tell is followed immediately by a (pro) noun object clause (e.g. me, us, John, someone) and then by a noun clause. Ann told me that she was hungry Ann told John that she was hungry.
Using Ask “IF” Ask, not say or tell, is used to report yes/no questions. (a)Sam said to me, “Are you hungry?” Sam Asked me if/whether I was hungry. In addition to ask, yes/no questions can be reported by using want to know, wonder, and inquire. Sam wanted to know/ inquired/wondered whether or not I was hungry.
WH-Questions-related change If a WH-Question is being asked then use the WH to introduce the noun clause and then change the question into statement. Ann said to him, “where did you go?” Ann asked him where he had gone.
PastPresent Past PerfectSimple Past Present Perfect Simple Present Past Perfect continuous Past Continuous Present Continuous
Simple presentSimple past He said, “I go to school every day.” Simple Past He said, “ I went to school every day.”Past Perfect Present Perfect He said, “I have gone to school everyday.”Past Perfect Present Progressive He said, “I am going to school every day.”Past Progressive Past Progressive He said, “I was going to school every day.”Perfect Progressive Future (will) He said, “I will go to school every day.”Would + verb name Future (going to) He said, “I am going to school every day.”Present Progressive Auxiliary + Verb Name He said, “Do you go to school every day?”Simple Past He said, “Where do you go to school?” Imperative He said, “Go to school every day.”Infinitive
Original UtteranceReported Sentence TonightThat Night TodayThat Day This week/Month/That week… Year/Semester etc NowThen YesterdayThe day before Last night/week…The previous night/week… Tomorrowthe next/following day Next week/month…the next/following week/month.. Five days/weeks…five days/weeks.. In five days’/weeks’…five days/ weeks…
Direct speech He says. “I go to school every day.” He has said, “I go to school every day.” He was saying, “I went to school every day.” He will say, “I go to school every day.” What the indirect speech answer of the above- mentioned sentences???????
The answer is There will be no change in the verb tenses because the main verb is in the present simple or perfect or future.
Some Troublesome Verbs: Advise, Suggest, And Recommend -Suggest and recommend can be followed immediately by gerund or by a “that-clause” in which should is used. -Ed suggests/recommends calling a doctor. -Ed suggests/recommends that Ann/I/we/he call a doctor. (not calls or called)
Advice: Advices either followed by (pro) noun object and infinitive or by a gerund. -Ed advises me to call a doctor. -Ed advises calling a doctor.
Reporting Speech: Verb + (pro)Noun object + Infinitive Advise someone to Ask someone to Encourage someone to Invite someone to Permit someone to Order someone to Remind someone to Tell someone to Warn someone to Allow – Beg – Challenge – Respect – Direct – Convince – instruct – persuade – expect – urge.