3 Inside the quotation marks. Quoted SpeechInside the quotation marks.Capitalizinge.g. 1. She said, “ My friend is a YUELI student.”2. “My friend is a YUELI student,” she said.3. “My friend,” she said , “ is a YUELIstudent .”Original
4 Quoted Speech---Differences 1.SubjectPronoun“My friend is a YUELI student,” she said.Noun“My friend is a YUELI student,” said Yang.2.CommaNeed commaNo comma“Where is my friend?” she asked.
5 Quoted Speech Quoting more than one sentence “My brother is a student,” she said. “He is attending a university.”
6 Reported SpeechNo quotation marksVerb forms“tell” VS “say”
7 Reported Speech e.g. “I am watching TV.” She said she was watching TV. “I watched TV.”She said she had watched TV.No “…”VF
8 Reported Speech e.g. No Change 1. should, might, ought to “I should watch TV.”She said she should watch TV.2. A general truth“The word is round.”She said the word is round.
9 Reported Speech e.g. No Change 3. Reporting Verb “I watch TV every day.”She says she watches TV every day.She has said that she watches TV every day.She will say that she watches TV every day.
10 Reported Speech ! He told me he would be late. Tell VS Say Imperative Infinitivee.g. “Watch TV.”She told me to watch TV.! He told me he would be late.He said he would be late.He said to me he
11 Noun Clauses & The Subjunctive Subjunctive verb simple formpresent, past, future formssingular & pluralStress the importance or urgency
12 Noun Clauses & The Subjunctive e.g.1.The teacher demands that we be on time.Subjunctive verbSubject2.I insist that he pay me the money.3.I recommended that she not go to school.4.It is important that they be told the truth.
13 Noun Clauses & The Subjunctive I suggested that she see a doctor.I suggested that she should see a doctor.BrECommon verbsadvise, ask, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest ……
14 Noun Clauses & -ever words -ever words the idea of anywhatever, whenever, wherever, whichever,whoever, whomever, however
15 Noun Clauses & -ever words e.g. 1.You may dress however you please.2. You may leave whenever you want.whomeverAmE: rare & very formalHe makes friends easily with whomever he meets.He makes friends easily with whoever he meets. (BrE)
16 ReferenceAzar, B.S. (2002). Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd Ed. NY: Pearson Education, Longman. PP