Presentation on theme: "India After the Indus Valley"— Presentation transcript:
1 India After the Indus Valley From Aryans to Guptas
2 Who Were the Aryans???Aryans - Indo European group that migrated from the middle of EurasiaPassed thru Khyber Pass about 1500 BCWhat is the Khyber Pass???Aryans come to India and find people who are different from themAryans were light skinned and spoke a different language and had a different religionNon-Aryans they call dasas which meant dark (due to their skin color)Dasa would later come to mean slaveDifferences will create classes quickly
4 The Caste System is Born Aryans had 3 classesBrahmin (priests) – upper classKshatriyas (warriors) – middle classVaisyas – (farmers, craftspeople, traders) – lower classEventually non-Aryans were a classCalled shudras – laborers, servants, and farm workersThey did the jobs Aryans did not want to doVarna – related to skin color- becomes the basis of this system; the classes were called varnasLater they would be called ‘castes’This starts the caste system
5 The Four Castes of India Aryan/ Indian god known as Brahma
6 Rituals & Religion of the Caste Aryans were polytheisticBelieved in heroic nature gods (ex. Thunder)Castes or classes gave role in societyPeople born into caste for LIFEDetermines your friends, wife, job, etc.Only way to change caste was through reincarnation – couldn’t change your status during your life
7 Rituals & Religion of the Caste Ritual purity a major part of religionEating / cleaning habits keep soul cleanUntouchables - people in society who were seen as less than any casteJobs made them dirty and ‘untouchable’Grave diggers, butchers, etc.If someone from another caste touched these people, they would automatically be reincarnated as an Untouchable themselves!!!
8 The Spread of the Aryans Aryans begin spreading east & southSpread east to Ganges RiverSpread south into the rest of IndiaMahabharata- epic poem that told of stories of Aryan spreadTells of mixing between the Aryans & non-AryansDominated the area of India from 1500BCE to 500BCE
9 The Mauryan Empire Emerges Takes power around 320 BCEChaundragupta Maurya is the leaderUnifies all of Northern India for 1st timeCreates a bureaucratic governmentWhat is a bureaucracy???Asoka (Chandragupta Maurya’s grandson)Brings India to its greatest heightsTurns away from war; spreads Buddhism insteadPracticed religious tolerance - people chooseBuilt road systems, hospitals, etc.
10 The Gupta Empire Emerges Chaundra Gupta (no relation) comes to power around 320 ADBrings Indian culture to its new peakAlso brings Hindu religion to its peakIndian society is patriarchalMeans eldest male rules the familyIndian civilization prospers from both trade and conquestCreate incredible advancements during this time period
11 Gupta Empire Advancements MathCreates the concept of zeroMedicineBook of over 1000 diseases diagnosedSurgeries performed, set bonesAstronomyProved the earth was roundNew ProductsSpices, gems, woods, traded silks****Used the Silk Roads for trading****LiteratureKhalidasa- famous playwright and writer