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India After the Indus Valley

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Presentation on theme: "India After the Indus Valley"— Presentation transcript:

1 India After the Indus Valley
From Aryans to Guptas

2 Who Were the Aryans??? Aryans - Indo European group that migrated from the middle of Eurasia Passed thru Khyber Pass about 1500 BC What is the Khyber Pass??? Aryans come to India and find people who are different from them Aryans were light skinned and spoke a different language and had a different religion Non-Aryans they call dasas which meant dark (due to their skin color) Dasa would later come to mean slave Differences will create classes quickly


4 The Caste System is Born
Aryans had 3 classes Brahmin (priests) – upper class Kshatriyas (warriors) – middle class Vaisyas – (farmers, craftspeople, traders) – lower class Eventually non-Aryans were a class Called shudras – laborers, servants, and farm workers They did the jobs Aryans did not want to do Varna – related to skin color- becomes the basis of this system; the classes were called varnas Later they would be called ‘castes’ This starts the caste system

5 The Four Castes of India
Aryan/ Indian god known as Brahma

6 Rituals & Religion of the Caste
Aryans were polytheistic Believed in heroic nature gods (ex. Thunder) Castes or classes gave role in society People born into caste for LIFE Determines your friends, wife, job, etc. Only way to change caste was through reincarnation – couldn’t change your status during your life

7 Rituals & Religion of the Caste
Ritual purity a major part of religion Eating / cleaning habits keep soul clean Untouchables - people in society who were seen as less than any caste Jobs made them dirty and ‘untouchable’ Grave diggers, butchers, etc. If someone from another caste touched these people, they would automatically be reincarnated as an Untouchable themselves!!!

8 The Spread of the Aryans
Aryans begin spreading east & south Spread east to Ganges River Spread south into the rest of India Mahabharata- epic poem that told of stories of Aryan spread Tells of mixing between the Aryans & non-Aryans Dominated the area of India from 1500BCE to 500BCE

9 The Mauryan Empire Emerges
Takes power around 320 BCE Chaundragupta Maurya is the leader Unifies all of Northern India for 1st time Creates a bureaucratic government What is a bureaucracy??? Asoka (Chandragupta Maurya’s grandson) Brings India to its greatest heights Turns away from war; spreads Buddhism instead Practiced religious tolerance - people choose Built road systems, hospitals, etc.

10 The Gupta Empire Emerges
Chaundra Gupta (no relation) comes to power around 320 AD Brings Indian culture to its new peak Also brings Hindu religion to its peak Indian society is patriarchal Means eldest male rules the family Indian civilization prospers from both trade and conquest Create incredible advancements during this time period

11 Gupta Empire Advancements
Math Creates the concept of zero Medicine Book of over 1000 diseases diagnosed Surgeries performed, set bones Astronomy Proved the earth was round New Products Spices, gems, woods, traded silks ****Used the Silk Roads for trading**** Literature Khalidasa- famous playwright and writer

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