2 Importance of Geography Natural/Physical Barriers of ProtectionMountain ranges in Northern India – Himalayas and Hindu KushKhyber Pass provided entrance routes for people to migrate into the Indian subcontinent.India Ocean isolated India by water.
6 Early Indus River Valley Civilizations Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilizationsDiscovered by archeologists in the 19th century, settled in 2500 BCE in the Indus River Valley (modern day Pakistan)Cities were 350 miles apart from each other, but they shared many common characteristics.
7 Sophisticated urban planning – city streets, pools, sewer system & plumbing Buildings made of mud brickControlled the Indus River through levees and dykes for crops.Used irrigation – grew many crops such as wheat, barley, and rice.Collapsed around 1500 BCE
8 AryansInvasionInvaded the Indian Subcontinent in 1500 BCE, possibly through the Khyber Pass.Easily took over due to advanced military technology, the chariot.Asserted their dominance early through military.
9 Culture and LanguagePolitically unstable civilization – Divided into smaller kingdoms.Ruled by local chiefs who were military in nature.Great Cultural influenceSanskrit: Aryan language, becomes a written language.Poems written in books called Vedas.
10 Social SystemCaste System: social class system based on heredityPeople were born into the class of their birth parents and could not change their caste or class through any means.Brahman, kshatriyas, vaisyas, pariahs.Caste system is found in Hinduism.
11 Mauryan Empire Beginnings Established by King Maurya in India in 321 BCE.Believed war would give him fame, he amassed a huge army to conquer India.
12 King AshokaGrandson of Maurya, took power of Mauryan Empire in 268 until 232.Early years of rule, very militaristic. Estimated killing at least 100,000 people.Experience a life change that changed his life and kingdom – converts to Buddhism.
13 Follows Buddhist (Siddhartha’s) teachings. Spreads Buddhism, constructs hospitals, veterinary clinics, builds roads.Rule brought peace and prosperity to India.
14 Gupta Empire Existed from 320 CE to 550 CE in India Empire only lasted for 200 years or so, but it was considered India’s Golden Age
15 Golden Age: Mathematics (concept of zero) Medical advancements (setting of bones)Astronomy (concept of round earth)New textiles and literature