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Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT INDUS CIVILIZATIONS You are here Egypt Mesopotamia INDIA CHINA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Early India & Geography Early Indian civilizations developed in the Indus River valley India is separated from the rest of Asia by two major mountain ranges – Himalayas – Hindu Kush Himalayas Hindu Kush Indian subcontinent

3 Invaders can only enter the Indian subcontinent by water or through a small number of mountain passes Himalayas Hindu Kush Indian subcontinent Khyber Pass most well-known mountain pass Khyber Pass

4 Plains stretch south from the mountains There are three major rivers on these plains – Indus – Ganges – Brahmaputra Indus River Ganges River Brahmaputra River Early India & Geography

5 Two seasonal winds called Monsoons affect the climate – Winter or Northeast (November to March) Brings dry air from mountains – Summer or Southwest (June to September) Brings wet air from the ocean Early India & Geography

6 HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION Harappan civilization reached its zenith about 2500 B.C.E. Most important advancement of the Harappan people was the development of planned cities – Cities were laid out in a grid pattern

7 ARRIVAL of the ARYANS About 1500 B.C. a group of peoples called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley thru the Kyber Pass ARYANS

8 ∆ Nomads at first, settled down into agriculture in Indus Valley ∆each tribe led by a Rajah (chief) ∆Cattle served as basis of diet, eventually used as money ∆spoke Sanskrit language ∆wrote the Vedas – means “Books of Knowledge” – formed basis of the Aryan religion that would become Hinduism ARRIVAL of the ARYANS

9 Society developed into the “ Caste System ” o Law of Manu  laws that governed caste system o 4 Varnas (social classes) developed o Each Varna had its own duties  called Dharma o Varnas were subdivided into smaller Jati 5 th group developed = Dalits o “broken people” ARRIVAL of the ARYANS

10  Outcasts  Harijan (“Children of God”)  Chandalas (“Impure Ones”) Too low to be in the caste system Considered “impure” from birth Perform jobs that are traditionally considered “unclean”  Scavengers, clean toilets and sewers, handle dead bodies Originally-could not enter villages/city during the day -could not walk in same street with other castes -shadow was considered impure -very sight of them was a bad omen -generally lived on outskirts of villages/cities -unknown/uncared for MOVEMENT THROUGH CASTE SYSTEM COULD ONLY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH REINCARNATION UNTOUCHABL ES

11 CASTE SYSTEM Varnas Groups outside the Varnas

12 Mauryan Empire 321 BC - 184 BC Chandragupta Maurya Unified India Skilled administrator Developed efficient postal system Ashoka  grandson of Chandragupta  built an empire that covered 2/3 of India

13 262 BC – Ashoka converted Buddhism  after battle saddened by loss of life  never again went to war  ruled by morality  Carved laws on poles and put throughout India  followed “ Ahimsa ”  non-violence  began building hospitals, schools, sent out Buddhist missionaries  built road with “Rest Stops” for travelers Mauryan Empire 321 BC - 184 BC

14 Gupta Empire 310 ad – 415 ad “ Golden Age ” of India Education, Arts  Folktales & Drama: Panchantantra – folktales to teach moral lessons through stories of animals Kalidasa, wrote Shakuntala – about the love between a king and forest maiden  Mathematics: principles leading to algebra Invented concepts of infinity and zero devised symbols for 1-9 (“Arabic Numerals”)

15 Gupta Empire 310 ad – 415 ad “ Golden Age ” of India  Astronomy:  Geography  earth is round  Trade: Arabia – gems, spices, cotton, ebony China – silk Rome – gold built many Hindu temples

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