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Motivation and Emotion. Basic Components of Motivation Motivation = the drive to begin or maintain behavior Motive = stimulus moves person toward behavior/goal.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion. Basic Components of Motivation Motivation = the drive to begin or maintain behavior Motive = stimulus moves person toward behavior/goal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Emotion

2 Basic Components of Motivation Motivation = the drive to begin or maintain behavior Motive = stimulus moves person toward behavior/goal Need = lack of something one requires Drive = force that pushes a person to act Incentive= force that pulls person toward particular behavior

3 Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic = incentive to perform behavior for self-satisfaction Extrinsic = incentive to perform for external reward or to avoid punishment

4 Instinct Theory we are motivated by our innate, unlearned behaviors “Evolutionary programming” only explains why we do a small fraction of our behaviors

5 Drive Reduction Theory behavior = motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS to maintain homeostasis (organism’s tendency to maintain a balanced state) – When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive. Primary drive = unlearned, to satisfy basic needs (food) Secondary drive = learned, but may be attached to primary ($ to buy food)

6 Arousal Theory Arousal = to incite to action primary need = to seek an optimum level of arousal Yerkes-Dodson Law – Low arousal = lethargic/perform badly – Arousal increase = performance increases – Too much arousal = decrease performance

7 Humanistic Theory Proposed by Maslow Humans have needs beyond those of survival and reducing drives Need to do something important with one’s life = as important as basic biological needs Must satisfy lower needs FIRST

8 Complete and Share Maslow Chart

9 HUNGER as Motivation

10 Biological Basis of Hunger Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. It comes from our… Brain What part of the brain? The Hypothalamus = like a thermostat

11 Lateral Hypothalamus When stimulated it makes you hungry. If lesioned (destroyed) one will never be hungry again  Ventromedial Hypothalamus When stimulated you feel full. If lesioned one will never feel full again.  Hunger and the Hypothalamus

12 External Vs Internal Hunger Factors External – Stress – Eating habits (breakfast, lunch, dinner) – Food-related cues (eating dessert even if full) – Presence of eating cues (time of day) Internal – Hypothalamus (chemicals released in brain) – Basal metabolic rate (rate of burning food) – Body set point (weight loss or gain) – Taste sensation (taste buds react to food)

13 Sexual Motivation Sex is natural = allows for reproduction of a species = Without sex, none of us would be here! Chemistry = chemicals in body trigger emotions associated with sex drive Sex = – A primary need for procreation – Can be a secondary need associated with Maslow’s hierarchy

14 When Motives Conflict approach-approach conflict = 2 desirable choices avoidance-avoidance conflict = 2 undesirable choices approach-avoidance conflict = a single events has positive and negative aspects multiple approach-avoidance conflicts = 2 or more options have positive & negative aspects

15 EMOTIONS Emotion is a relatively brief reaction to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and observable behavior.

16 The Motivation & Emotion Connection Motivation = source of our behavior Emotion = feelings associated with our behavior Emotions can function as motivation Hit someone because you are angry Do something because it makes you happy

17 Four Components of Emotion 1.Interpret, appraise some stimulus (ex. Shark = serious threat) 2. Experience a feeling (fear, terror, excitement) 3. Physiological response (heart rate or breathing change) 4. Show observable behaviors (cry, panic, freeze)

18 Emotions and the Brain Do facial expressions activity :-) Function = communicate emotion to others Paul Ekman –some facial expressions are universal & few of us (10 – 20%) can hide true emotions –Communicate 3 things What emotion is being experienced Whether 2 emotions are blended Strength of emotion –identified six emotions associated with universal facial expressions (30 yr study)

19 Culturally Universal Expressions  A = happiness  B = surprise  C = fear  D = sadness  E = anger  F = disgust http://education- emotions.html#lesson

20 Theories Of Emotion 1.Physiological Theories 2.Cognitive Theories

21 Physiological Theories of Emotion Main Belief – Emotions derive from physical changes in the body EX = fear heightened when heart races (panic attack)

22 Emotion and Physiology Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

23 Main Belief – Emotions result from mental processes and physiological changes working together Cognitive Theories of Emotion

24 James-LangeTheory of Emotion= I see a bear, my muscles tense, I feel afraid!  Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli (react and then label) Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

25 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion = I see a bear, I feel afraid and my muscles tense!  Sympathetic NS too slow to account for the speed of emotional reactions = problem with James-Lange.  Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:  physiological responses  subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

26 Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion = I feel nervous. I must be scared!  To experience emotion one must:  be physically aroused  cognitively label the arousal  Then label the feeling Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

27 Tony Robbins: Why We Do What We Do ins_asks_why_we_do_what_we_do.html ins_asks_why_we_do_what_we_do.html

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