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MOTIVATION AND EMOTION. WHAT MOTIVATES YOU? Instinct Theory (evolutionary perspective) – genetics predispose species- typical behavior. We are motivated.

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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION AND EMOTION. WHAT MOTIVATES YOU? Instinct Theory (evolutionary perspective) – genetics predispose species- typical behavior. We are motivated."— Presentation transcript:


2 WHAT MOTIVATES YOU? Instinct Theory (evolutionary perspective) – genetics predispose species- typical behavior. We are motivated by the way we are genetically programed. Drive Reduction Theory – the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need. As a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive. The aim is to achieve Homeostasis – a steady internal state.

3 WHAT MOTIVATES YOU Arousal Theory : some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Exploring, Learning, Curiosity, Thrill Seeking Some motivation is to eliminate arousal and some is to Increase arousal.

4 A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake A Desire to perform a behavior effectively to receive promised reward or avoid punishment. INCENTIVE THEORY: WHAT MOTIVATES YOU? Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Incentives – positive or negative stimuli that lure and repel us.

5 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Some needs take priority over others. When basic needs are satisfied other motives are energized, directing your behavior. This creates a Pyramid of needs. As basic needs are met, we can climb the pyramid to fulfill “higher” needs. At the base of the Pyramid are physiological needs such as food and water. Only if those needs are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety. That is followed by human needs to give and receive love and enjoy self esteem. Finally we can meet the need to actualize one’s full potential.


7 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS… Have you ever experienced true hunger or thirst that displaced your concern for other, higher-level needs? Do you usually feel safe? Loved? Confident? How often do you feel you are able to address what Maslow calls your “Self Actualization” needs? Aron Ralston article When starting the trip, before being pinned by the boulder, what level of need was Aron meeting? While stuck, where in the hierarchy of needs was Aron? Now, years after his “accident”, what level in the hierarchy would you say Aron is in?

8 MOTIVATING FACTORS Hunger – Blood Glucose levels drop and trigger feelings of Hunger in the brain Sex – Basic need and drive to reproduce Need to Belong – Humans have a drive to belong to a group, it aids survival, helps emotional well being, we sustain relationships and feel pain when ostracized.

9 Eating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa – an eating disorder in which a person (usually adolescent females) diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat, continues to starve. Bulimia Nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. Binge Eating Disorder – significant binge eating, followed by remorse but do not purge, fast, or exercise excessively. Hypothalamus - controls hunger by releasing Orexin Orexin – Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. Glucose – the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for the body. With its level is low, we feel hunger. Insulin – secreted by pancreas, controls blood glucose HUNGER Physiology of Hunger Psychology of Hunger

10 BioPsychoSocial Influences on Eating Behaviors

11 Levels of Analysis for Sexual Motivation

12 THE NEED TO BELONG Aiding survival Wanting to belong Sustaining relationships The pain of ostracism ostracism

13 EMOTIONS Emotion: A response of the whole organism involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, (3) conscious experience. James-Lange Theory: FIRST comes Physiological response – THEN comes experienced emotion. Ex.. We feel sad because we cry. Cannon-Bard Theory: emotion arousing stimulus SIMOULTANEOUSLY triggers the physiological response and the experience of emotion. Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory : to experience emotion one must be both physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. The emotion is experienced after arousal and labeling. Crash Course Video: Emotions

14 JAMES-LANGE THEORY OF EMOTION  Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion- arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

15 CANNON-BARD THEORY OF EMOTION  Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:  physiological responses  subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

16 SCHACHTER’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF EMOTION  To experience emotion one must:  be physically aroused  cognitively label the arousal Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

17 EMOTION AND PHYSIOLOGY Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

18 COGNITION AND EMOTION COGNITION CAN DEFINE EMOTION Spill over effect – our arousal response to one event spills over to another event Schachter-Singer experiment – injection; told of effect or not; waiting room accomplice. Arousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it


20 EXPERIENCED EMOTION  Infants’ naturally occurring emotions

21 EXPERIENCED EMOTION  Catharsis  emotional release  catharsis hypothesis  “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges  Feel-good, do-good phenomenon  people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

22 Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion

23 Anger Evoked by events Catharsis Expressing anger can increase anger Adaptive value of fear The biology of fear amygdala EXPERIENCED EMOTION FearAnger

24 EXPERIENCED EMOTION Happiness Feel Good do Good Phenomenon Well Being

25 HAPPINESS TWO PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA: ADAPTATION AND COMPARISON Happiness and Prior Experience Adaptation-level phenomenon: our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.Adaptation-level phenomenon Happiness and others’ attainments Relative deprivation : the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.Relative deprivation


27 STRESS AND ILLNESS STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS Catastrophes Significant life changes Daily hassles

28 STRESS AND THE HEART Coronary heart disease = the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America.Coronary heart disease Type A versus Type B Type A = Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.Type A Type B = Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.Type B

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