2 What is Emotion?A conscious feeling of pleasantness/unpleasantness accompanied by biological activation and expressive behaviorIncludes both biological and cognitive componentsTwo Dimensions:Arousal (intensity)The greater the arousal the more intense the emotionValence (positive/negative quality)Basic Inborn Emotions:Joy, fear, anger, sadness, surprise and disgust (Ekman’s Research; Microexpressions)
3 Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of:1. Physiological Arousal2. Expressive Behaviors (how you react to the physiological arousal)3. Conscious Experience (how you cognitively interpret environment)
4 Theories of Emotions Evolutionary Theory James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard TheoryOpponent-Process TheorySchachter-Singer Two-Factor TheoryCognitive Appraisal Theory
5 Evolutionary Theory (Paul Ekman) Emotions are developed because of adaptive values, allowing the organism to survive by avoiding dangerAnimals/humans showing expressions of anger allows us to avoid conflict with themKnowing how we feel before we know what we think
6 Facial Expressions Are Universal No matter what part of the world you are from, facial expressions indicating 6 basic emotions tend to be universal.
7 Facial Expressions Are Universal The six universal emotions are:HappinessAngerInterest (not an emotion)DisgustSurpriseSadnessFear
9 Detecting Emotion/Lies With Facial Expressions With experience and training it is possible to detect microexpressions which indicate guilt, despair, and fear.Paul Ekman developed a system for classifying deception within emotional expression.Must play close attention to facial muscles which are nearly impossible to control.
11 James-Lang Theory (William James & Karl Lange) Proposed that our awareness of our physiological arousal leads to our conscious experience of emotionBelieve that we can change our feelings by changing our behaviorFacial-feedback hypothesis: our facial expressions affect our emotional experiencesSmilingpositive moodsFrowningnegative moodsExternal stimuli activate our automatic nervous systems, producing specific patterns of physiological changes for different emotions that create different emotional experiencesSee a mean dogwe run (SNS kicks in)then we realize we are afraid
12 James-Lange Theory of Emotion A Physiological Response causes the EmotionFear(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)
13 Support for James-Lange Subjects report feeling more sad when viewing scenes of war, sickness, and starvation if their “sad face” muscles are activated.They also find comic strips funnier if their “happy face” muscles are activated.This is called the facial feedback effect
14 Criticism of James-Lange Fear(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)LOVE(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofYour secret crush
15 Cannon-Bard Theory (Walter Cannon & Phillip Bard) Disagreed with James-Lang TheoryConscious experience of emotion accompanies physiological responses because the thalamus sends information to the limbic system & the cerebral cortex simultaneously interactSee a mean dogrun because we recognize we are afraid (happens at the same time)*the thalamus does not directly cause emotional responses, it relays sensory info. to the amygdala and hypothalamus
16 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)Fear(emotion)The Physiological Response and the Emotion are experienced at the SAME TIME
17 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Says James-Lange theory is full of crap.The physiological change and the emotion occur simultaneously.They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
18 Think – Two cannons firing at the same time. Physiological change (heart rate, breathing)Emotion
19 Opponent-Process Theory (Solomon and Corbit) When we experience an emotion, an opposing emotion will counter the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotionDuring repeated occasions, the opposing emotion becomes strongerWhen we go bungee jumping the first time, we feel extreme fear and high levels of a “rush”…after multiple jumps, we become less fearful & don’t experience as strong of a “rush”
20 Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory (Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer) We infer emotion from arousal and then label it according to our cognitive explanation of the arousalIf we feel aroused and someone is yelling at us, we must be angry
21 Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion Cognitivelabel“I’m afraid”Fear(emotion)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)We experience the Physiological Response and give it a Cognitive Label and this produces our emotions
22 Reviewing the three theories Emotion occurs at the same time as arousalCannon-BardEmotion follows (lags behind) arousalJames-LangeArousal + Cognitive label EmotionSchachter’s Two Factor
23 Cognitive-Appraisal Theory (Richard Lazarus) Our emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we are inPrimary appraisal: Assess potential consequences of the situationSecondary appraisal: We decide what to doWe can change our emotions if we learn to interpret the situation differentlyCounter Arguments:Evolutionary Psychologists: Disagree that emotions depend on evaluation of the situation (emotional response is developed before complex thinking)Robert Zajonc: thinks we often know how we feel before we know what we think about the situation
24 If you are in a falling vehicle heading toward the ground at 60 mph, your autonomic reaction would include heart racing and screaming. But if your cognitive appraisal says you are on a rollercoaster, then you have the emotion of “fun.”
25 Biology of EmotionsSympathetic Nervous System (SNS): Hormonal secretionAmygdala: influences aggression and fear which interacts with the hypothalamusHypothalamus: sets emotional states such as rageCerebral cortex & frontal lobe: interpretation of emotionsLeft hemisphere: Positive emotionsRight hemisphere: Negative emotionsBody language & vocal qualities change for different emotions
26 Biology of FearThe body’s control center for learning/enacting fear is the amygdala.Loss or damage to one’s amygdala has lead to fearlessness in some patients.
27 Must Cognition Precede all Emotions? Some pathways, especially ones involving amygdala (fear), bypass cortical areas involved in thinking.Certain likes, dislikes, and fears do ignore conscious thinking.
28 Two Routes to Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological activationExpressivebehaviorSubjectiveexperience
29 The Physical Arousal of Emotion is Controlled by The Autonomic Nervous System It is very difficult to differentiate the physical arousal associated with many emotions (criticism of James-Lange Theory) even though they definitely feel different.The arousal associated with emotions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system’s divisions the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.