2 Introduction to Gender Inequality There is no nation where women and men are equals.A History of global patriarchySex refers to the biological differences between males and females.Gender refers to the social and cultural patterns attached to women and men, or the way a society treats those biological differencesSocial factors make women unequal to men.
3 Is Gender Biological or Social? Biological Basis for Gender Roles:Males and females are different from the moment of conception.Chromosomal and reproductive differencesHormonesIf gender is completely biological, the suggestion is that these biological differences explain the domination of women by men.
4 Social Bases for Gender Roles Cross-cultural evidence shows a wide variation of behaviors for the sexes.Society transforms females and males into socially interacting women and men.Every known society makes gender a major category for organizing social life.
5 The Social Construction of Gender Gender role SocializationFemininity and masculinityWhen does gender role socialization begin? Through what agents do boys and girls/men and women learn gender behavior norms?
6 Gender Roles in the United States Gender-Role SocializationBoys must be masculineActiveAggressiveToughDaringDominantGirls must be feminineSoftEmotionalSweetSubmissive
7 Gender MythsWe tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and typically male characteristics with strength.He’s firm, but she’s stubborn.He’s careful about details, but she’s picky.He’s honest, but she’s opinionated.He’s raising good points, but she’s “bitchy.”We tend to see men as strong, not emotional and women as emotional and not strong, although we have seen those stereotypes change through the years and we are seeing them change even more.
8 The Problem of SexismSexism is the assertion that one sex is innately inferior to the otherSexism supports patriarchy by claiming that men are “better” than women and therefore should dominate them.
9 Women and Men are Differentiated and Ranked Gender Stratification: the ranking of the sexes in such a way that women are unequal in power, resources, and opportunitiesGender inequality exists in most parts of the world.Does it continue to exist in the Unites States?
10 Gender and Power Institutions are structured around gender. Institutional discrimination: denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from normal operations of a societyPatriarchy is the term used for forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women.In what Social Institutions do we continue to see male domination?
13 Male Domination The Economy-Women in the Workplace The Gender wage gap- Women earn 81 cents on the dollar that men earn even with equal occupation and level of educationFor women of color, earning discrimination is even greaterThe Matrix of Domination- Social forces that contribute to the subordinate status of many women
14 Male Domination Women in the Workplace Explaining the Gender wage gap DiscriminationMale corporate cultureGender role SocializationOccupational segregationCarework
15 What improvements have been made for the status of women in American society over the last half century?Why?
16 Addressing Gender Discrimination Feminism: belief in social, economic, and political equality for womenEarly 19th century feminists won many victories, including 19th Amendment2nd feminism wave emerged in U.S. in 1960sAs women became aware of sexist attitudes and practices, began to challenge male dominance
17 Addressing Gender Discrimination: Feminist Foundations There is no one version of feminism, but almost all feminists agree on:the importance of genderthe importance of changethe importance of choicethe need to eliminate patriarchythe need to eliminate violence against womenthe importance of sexual autonomy
18 Addressing Gender Discrimination Construction of gender discrimination as a social problemAreas to seek improvementGender roles and careworkClosing the gender wage gap“Family Friendly” policiesBoard room quotasI.E. Lilly Ledbetter