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CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative.

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Presentation on theme: "CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative."— Presentation transcript:

1 CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative adjectives e.g. however, whereas, larger than, smaller, steeper, less densely. ContrastGive a point by point identification of differences only. DescribeIdentify distinctive features and give descriptive, factual detail. This is one of the most widely used command words. Unless the question says describe and explain, never explain (e.g. writing because) as there will be no credit given. This is a very easy way to waste time; especially where resource based questions such as G1 and G2 part (a) questions ask for a description that may ask to set out the main patterns, trends, characteristics, distributions, effects, relationships DefineGive the precise meaning of a term. The question structure of AS and A2 units does not allow short commands of this type. However, where the question uses specialist terms such as asylum seeker, it is good practice to start with a definition before moving on to the body of the answer. This will help to avoid confusion and provide a clear focus for both you and the examiner. DiscussDescribe and explain relevant points and build up a balanced argument with supporting detail. At AS the level of detail and discussion will be guided by the mark and time allocation and the level of discussion expected will be less than at A2. EvaluateEvaluate asks the candidate to give an overall assessment of value with a justification of conclusions or viewpoints. At AS this command will be used in relation to questions about the enquiry process in G1 and G2 Question 3 (c), or where the term evaluate is used in the Key Question or Content columns of the Specification. ExplainGive reasons or causes. Show an understanding of how or why something has occurred. IdentifyPoint out and name from a number of possibilities. The command will be used in conjunction with describe or explain. IllustrateRefer to a case study or example. It does not mean draw, although appropriate maps or diagrams enhance case studies. JustifyExplain why your choice is better than the possible options. OutlineGive a brief summary of the main characteristics. Where questions ask for an outline of the main reasons then a summary explanation is needed. Use the information in Figure X to describe Your answer must be based on the resources provided and have a direct reference to the resource. Suggest reasons whyPut forward a plausible explanation from your wider geographical understanding and not just actual knowledge. Suggest and justifyPut forward an idea and explain your choice. With the aid of an annotated Annotation requires labelling plus some explanation or extended comment on or near the diagram.

2 Contrast the characteristics of two different types of migration [10] May 2010 This is part of KI3 - What is the role of migration in population change? This is a really open question for all candidates – the can choose any two kinds of migration and show how they are different. They use the classification and look at push and pull factors, reasons for migration, impacts on people and places. Lots of different approaches are possible.

3 Mark Scheme: - Voluntary versus forced - Permanent versus temporary - Reasons: economic v social v environmental v political. - Numbers involved v distance. # Lots of contrasting types of migration exist. Accept approaches that contrast two identified migrations. # A minimum of two migrations is necessary for a contrast to be valid.

4 Level 3 8-10 marks Developed knowledge and detailed understanding of two contrasting migrations. Good development of examples Level 2: 4-7 marks Some knowledge and understanding of two contrasting migrations. The migrations could be inappropriate as contrasting ones. Examples are evident and enhance the contrast. Max level for two distinct accounts without explicit contrast. Level 1: 0-3 marks Superficial knowledge and understanding of contrasting migrations. Little use of examples.

5 Migration Classification

6 Permanent v. Temporary

7 Could use individual case studies Voluntary v. Forced – (Forced in KI4 – yet to do) but Mohey here is an e.g. of a refugee Check definition of forced migration

8 Good Answer – 2 types of migration general points of contrast case study examples supporting facts and figures impacts on people and places

9 Describe.. Biggest total amount of remittances Biggest proportion of remittances as part of GDP Lesotho location Technique used?

10 (Black) African Migration to Europe Voluntary International Migration Motivation – Economic Large numbers Illegal Economic dreaming of better life Mainly young – potentially talented – semi-trained Criminals – risks Smuggler prices. 100s drown. Mainly black Africans from poor LEDCs About two-thirds of Africans in Europe are from north Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) 4.6 million Pressure points – Canaries, Malta, Lampedusa islands About 22,016 people reached Italy by boat in 2006, down slightly from 2005. Problems for EU Border Agency Frontex - policing An increasing number are travelling from Sub-Saharan Africa mainly heading for the former colonial powers of France, Germany, Italy and the UK. Having migrated, many migrants send money home to family they have left behind. Uganda gets $0.5 billion remittances ay year. 5.5% of GDP Many trapped in internment camps – intervening places – ashamed to return home

11 (White) South African Migration to English speaking countries Voluntary International Migration - Brain Drain - South Africa: Motivation - Social Smaller numbers Legal Push factors: Fear of violent crime cited by 60% Zimbabwes problems may spread to SA. Government policy may penalise whites Fully trained Professional eg. Air Traffic Controllers Labour shortages – Johannesburg airport 20 vacancies in 2007. 5 year training time 800,000 SA could claim UK passports. Fill skill shortages in MEDCs so get Visas Mainly to English speaking countries – no language barrier. 25% to UK 18% Australia (common culture eg rugby cricket) 300,000 SA left in 2001 – exodus of skills. 20% of SA professionals have left Brain drain costs SA £159 million a year SA faces a real skills shortage – but may create opportunities for Black South Africans to up skill to replace white emigrants There may be a knock on effect to neighbouring poorer LEDCs whose skilled labour may take better paid jobs in SA replacing jobs vacated by emigrants No real risk to migrants safety in movement – perceived risk greater to stay. No drain on resources of receiving countries – migrants are affluent and will work paying taxes and will not need Social Services support.

12 Other case studies As we meet them you could make your own summary notes / spider diagrams. You are encouraged by the WJEC and by me to research your own examples at any stage.

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